Health and Safety Training Manual

Table of Contents

Complete Manual PDF fIle


Section 1 – Administrative policies and procedures

PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 1 - Introduction and background
PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 2 - Purpose and Scope
PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 3 - Safety and Health Policy Statement
PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 4 - Program Compliance and Responsibilities
PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 5 - Safety Training and Communications
- Recordkeeping and documentation
- Safety items required by law

Section 2 – General Safety Rules

PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 1 - Hazard Communication (Right-To-Know)
- Hazardous Communication and Training Act
- Hazardous Chemicals Index
- Material Safety Data Sheets
- Employee training and information
- Container labeling
- Non-routine tasks
- Contractor requirements
- Chemical Waste Disposal
PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 2 - Confined Space Entry
- Policy
- Responsibilities
- Identification
- Definitions
- Written procedures
- Training
- Contractors
PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 3 - Energy Control Program
- Lock out/Tag out procedures
- Machine guarding procedures
PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 4 - Personal Protective Equipment
- Use, responsibility, cost
- Training
- Protective apparel
- Foot protection
- Eye protection
- Hand protection
- Hearing protection
- Head protection and helmets
- Respirators
- Fall protection and harnesses
PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 5 - Manual Handling
PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 6 - Physical Labor
PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 7 - Welding Operations
PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 8 - Workshops & Maintenance
- Woodworking machines
- Grinding machines
- Metal lathes
- Metal cutting band saws
- Metal planers, shapers, drilling & boring machines
- Power presses & forming equipment
- Explosive actuated tools
- Handling chemicals
PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 9 - Forklift Operations
PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 10 - Elevated Work Surfaces
- Ladders
- Aerial lifts
- Scaffolds
PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 11 - Electrical Operations
PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 12 - Painting Operations
PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 13 - Firearms
PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 14 - Severe Weather
PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 15 - Motor Vehicle Maintenance Safety
PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 16 - Laboratory Safety

Section 3 – Occupational Health

PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 1 - Hearing Conservation Program
PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 2 - Respiratory Protection Program
PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 3 - Health Hazards in Agriculture
- Farm noise
- Heat stress
- Stress and overall worker health
PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 4 - Ergonomic Farming
PDF fIle HTML File Chapter 5 - Bloodborne Pathogens Exposure Control

Section 4 – Agricultural Safety Rules

PDF file HTML FIle Chapter 1 - Farm Machinery and Equipment
- Tractor operation
- Tractor maintenance
- Grain harvesting equipment
- Baling hay
- Tillage equipment
- All-Terrain Vehicles and Ag bikes
- Dangers of AG machinery
PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 2 - Handling Animals
- Cattle
- Swine
- Sheep
PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 3 - Dairy Farm Safety
PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 4 - Farm Fuel Safety
PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 5 - Agri-Chemicals
- Pesticide safety
- Worker Protection Standard
- Pesticide applicator
- Pesticide worker
- Special requirements for greenhouses and nurseries
PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 6 - Chainsaws
PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 7 - Rotary Ag Mowers
PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 8 - Trenching and Excavation Operations
PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 9 - Irrigation Safety
PDF fIle HTML FIle Chapter 10 - Common Zoonoses in Agriculture

Section 5 – Appendices

PDF fIle HTML File -Safety training forms and checklist
  html -Respirator fit test & medical questionnaire forms
  html -Prescription safety glass request form
  html -Safety shoe request form
PDF fIle HTML FIle -Fire and Emergency procedures
-Emergency phone numbers
PDF fIle HTML FIle -First Aid and Special Medical Service
PDF fIle HTML FIle -Slow Moving Vehicle (SMV) Emblem

Environmental Health and Safety at OSU

Section 1 – Administrative policies and procedures

Health and Safty Training Manual

Chapter 1 - Background and Introduction

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 1 – Administrative policies and procedures

pdfI. Oregon State University is a land-grant university with a deep-rooted history of agricultural science education and research. As such, there is a profound interest in the safety and health of the agricultural workers at the main campus, out-lying units, and facilities across the state. This set of occupational safety and health rules are meant to provide all agricultural workers at Oregon State University the proper guidelines to prevent accidents and loss of life, or health. Under all circumstances, workers must be properly trained to perform their required task.

II. All guidelines in this set of agricultural safety rules were developed from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) - 29 CFR 1910, 1926, and 1928 as adopted by O.A.R., Oregon OSHA 437-004, and 40 CFR part 170, EPA’s Worker Protection Standard for pesticide handlers. Workers are reminded that the Oregon State University is regulated by OR-OSHA and Oregon Department of Environmental Quality.

III. These rules are to be used as building blocks for individual agricultural units to properly provide adequate safety and health protection for their workers. Department heads or directors should add local regulations and procedures that are specific for their location. Department heads or directors are responsible for implementation of safe work practices

IV. This manual is intended to be flexible so departments or superintendents can use and apply only those sections that pertain to them. Department heads or directors should add local regulations and procedures that are specific for their location. The University Farm Safety Committee will review this manual on a regular basis and make changes as Federal and State laws change.

V. The University has a responsibility to provide a safe workplace for its employees. Workers also have a responsibility to follow safe practices to protect themselves and others working around them. In agricultural work as with other types of labor, there is a certain amount of common sense that must be brought to the job by the worker. Rules and guidelines cannot always be provided to ensure or guarantee a safe workplace in all work situations. Therefore, agricultural workers must use common sense in those situations.

Chapter 2 - Purpose and Scope

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 1 – Administrative policies and procedures


The purpose of this Agricultural Safety Manual is to create an overall awareness of the hazards of the job as well as to offer guidelines for safe agricultural practices. Employees are required to review, be familiar, and understand the information set forth in these guidelines. Interested personnel are referred to these documents for assistance or additional explanations with the rules.

Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) developed this program to help the College of Agriculture protect students, faculty and employees from exposure to agriculture hazards and to facilitate university compliance with local, state and federal safety-related regulatory requirements. This program complies with the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations 29 CFR 1910, 1926, and 1928 as adopted by O.A.R. OR-OSHA 437-004.


This safety program applies to Oregon State University Research and Experiment Station properties, and work performed by Oregon State University employees. This program addresses the recognition, evaluation, and control of hazards related to agricultural operations and agricultural research.

Chapter 3 - Safety and Health Policy Statement

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 1 – Administrative policies and procedures

pdfIt is the policy of the College of Agricultural Sciences and OSU to pursue every reasonable effort to provide a safe and healthful working environment for employees and students. The College of Agriculture recognizes the value of the individual employee. The safety and health of our employees is our highest priority. Employees are required to follow all University safety rules. Unsafe working conditions, unsafe practices, or machines that are unsafe to operate must be reported to supervisors immediately. Employees also must report to their supervisors any injuries that occur at the workplace. It is further policy that faculty, staff, and students shall conduct their work and activities in a safe manner.

The College of Agriculture intends to comply with all safety laws and regulations. Safety issues will be reviewed regularly with our employees.

While the President is ultimately responsible for the safety of staff, faculty, and students, it is necessary that considerable safety responsibility be delegated to the department head, who in turn delegates responsibility to supervisors and/or building managers. Our faculty and staff administrators will be held accountable for fulfilling their safety responsibility.

It is the acceptance of this responsibility, and the safety attitude of these people that determine the success of the safety program. Past and continued excellent performances in this vital activity are much appreciated.

Chapter 4 - Agriculture Safety Program Compliance & Responsibilities

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 1 – Administrative policies and procedures

pdfAdministrative Management Support

The senior administration of Oregon State University fully supports the concept of agriculture safety and accident prevention for faculty, staff, students and visitors and encourages all feasible means of achieving a safe and healthful working and learning environment.

Compliance with Safety Regulations

It is the policy of the University to maintain, within reason, facilities and practices that are in compliance with local, state, and federal health and safety regulations. In the absence of appropriate statutes or regulations, standards of nationally recognized professional health and safety organizations will serve as a guide.

Supervisor’s Responsibility

Although the President has the ultimate responsibility for the safety of staff, faculty, and students, a great deal of safety responsibility has been delegated to supervisors. A supervisor may be a dean, department head, director, manager, administrator or any other faculty or staff person who is in charge of one or more employees.

Supervisors are directly responsible and accountable for the welfare of employees and students assigned to them and for the administration of health and safety regulations and university safety procedures within their areas of control. One of the criteria for evaluation of administrative personnel shall be their administration of safety procedures and accident prevention efforts.

It is the responsibility of every supervisor to provide and document the initial and continuing safety training necessary to allow employees to perform their work safely. This must be a joint effort between the supervisor and employee and must include frequent work observations by the supervisor and prompt correction of observed unsafe work habits.

New employees experience a high number of injuries, primarily because they may be unfamiliar with proper safe work procedures. To reduce this vulnerability, supervisors must ensure that new employees receive the appropriate initial safety training. The Office of Environmental Health and Safety can provide additional safety information.

The safety responsibilities for supervisors in the work areas and for the employees they control should include the following duties. The acceptance of these duties, and the safety attitude of supervisors will determine the success of the Ag safety program.

Supervisor’s Duties:

  • Make every reasonable effort to ensure the safety of employees and students under your control and make their workplace free of recognized hazards. For those hazards that are not within your ability to correct, notify your supervisor about the condition(s).
  • Evaluate the physical capability of potential new employees to perform the tasks required. This is not discrimination. It is an expected responsibility to make a reasonable determination of a potential employee's skills and physical ability to perform the tasks required by the position.
  • Provide job training in work area safety procedures for all your employees, especially for new and reassigned employees with new job activities.
  • Conduct regular work area safety inspections with assistance from of Environmental Health and Safety, if needed, to discover and correct unsafe conditions and work practices.
  • Investigate injury accidents, not to find fault, but to determine cause and to pursue the correction of any safety deficiencies.
  • Report all injuries on a Report of Accident form and send it to Human Resources. If an injury to an employee requires physician's treatment or will result in lost work, a SAIF 801 claim form should also be completed and sent with the Report of Accident form.
  • Promote safe practices and attitudes among employees and students. If protective equipment must be used, promote its use by example.
  • Consider safe work habits and attitude toward the job as a part of all performance ratings.
  • Respond to employees' concerns for safety in a positive manner and take appropriate corrective action.

The Employee’s and Student’s Responsibilities

Employees of the university must have a common goal of keeping accidents to a minimum. Most accidental injuries in the work environment are caused by unsafe work habits. Therefore, all employees should continually strive to develop habits and procedures that will reduce exposure to potential injury. Employees are urged to make safe performance an essential element of every task. As part of their safety responsibilities, employees are expected to do the following:

  • Conduct their work safely and try to maintain their work areas hazard-free.
  • Wear personal protective equipment as prescribed by their supervisors; such equipment will be provided by the university.
  • Report hazards or unsafe work practices to supervisors or to Environmental Health and Safety.
  • Maintain reasonable physical body conditioning for the tasks of the work environment.
  • Cooperate fully with supervisors in conducting investigations of accidents so that unsafe conditions or work procedures may be corrected.
  • Participate in physical restoration or vocational programs following lost-time injuries to achieve an early return to work.
  • Follow all safety rules and report all injuries to their supervisor.

Chapter 5 - Safety Training and Communications

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 1 – Administrative policies and procedures

pdfSupervisors, both faculty and staff, are responsible for establishing, implementing, and maintaining a system for communicating with employees and students about health and safety matters. Information must be presented in a manner readily understood by the affected employees and students. Attention must be given to levels of literacy and language barriers. Verbal communications should be supplemented with written materials or postings. Whenever appropriate, statutes and policies affecting employees and students shall be available in the workplace.

Faculty, staff, and students who may come in contact with hazardous substances or practices in the workplace shall be provided information concerning the particular hazards which may be posed, and the methods by which they may deal with such hazards in a safe and healthful manner. In areas where hazardous chemicals are used, handled, or stored, communications about these hazards shall conform to the Chemical Hazard Communication policy set forth in the OSU Safety Handbook. (See OSU Administrative Policies and Procedures manual)

Record Keeping and Documentation

Records of inspections, including who conducted the inspections, dates, any unsafe conditions or practices found, and corrective actions taken, must be maintained for three years and be available to EH&S, OR-OSHA, Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA), or United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) on demand. Self-inspection and guidelines are available from EH&S. Supervisors must also document training and communications, whether conducted in classes, safety meetings, or one-on-one job safety training sessions.

Specifically, the supervisor must keep records of who was trained, who did the training, when the training occurred, and what was taught. Training records will be kept in a training file, and training records for individual employees should be kept in each employee’s file. The same holds true for students

Documentation should include safety meeting and/or training session agendas, signup sheets with signatures of attendees, and copies of any written communications.

Recognition of Hazards: In addition to regular inspection, employees need to be responsible for maintaining a safe, orderly workplace. Employees should be encouraged to let management know of unsafe or hazardous conditions. Employees are also encouraged to offer solutions for safety problems or concerns.

Safety Items Required by Law

Safety items should be posted as required by law. Posters are available on Worker Protection Standards and other laws that can be placed in a common area. Also, items such as MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheets) and records of pesticide application to fields need to be readily available to employees.

Section 2 – General Safety Rules

Health and Safety Training Manual

Chapter 1 - Hazard Communication

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 2 – General Safety Rules

pdfHazard Communication and Training Act

The Hazard Communication and Training Act require employers to inform workers about hazardous chemicals in their work areas and to provide training in safety procedures. Oregon State University has designated Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) to administer a program to comply with this law.

Hazardous Chemicals Index

EH&S maintains a list of all hazardous chemicals or substances in the workplace. Each department is responsible for providing EH&S with a copy of each material safety data sheet which they receive from manufacturers.

Material Safety Data Sheets

Departments may obtain computerized material safety data sheets for hazardous materials from EH&S by using one of the following procedures:

  • Personnel may request specific MSDS’s from EH&S.
  • Internet Access:
  • In an EMERGENCY personnel may call OSU Security Services, extension 7-7000.

If a necessary material safety data sheet is not on the computerized list, contact EH&S; they will obtain a copy of the MSDS from the manufacturer of the hazardous chemical.

Employee Training and Information

Each supervisor is required to train each employee concerning the presence and safe handling of hazardous chemicals in the employee's workplace. This training shall be provided at the time of the employee's initial assignment and whenever a new hazardous chemical is introduced into the workplace.

This training should include at least the following:

  • The physical and health hazards of the chemicals.
  • The methods that may be used to detect the presence or release of the hazardous chemicals.
  • The measures employees can take to protect themselves from these hazards.
  • The details of the hazard communication program, labeling requirement, and how employees can obtain and use the chemical hazard information.

It is recommended that a record of this training be maintained by the supervisor. EH&S has developed training outlines and may be contacted for assistance. Each employee must also receive a copy of Working Safely with Hazardous Materials, a Handbook for Employees. This booklet is given to each new employee as part of the orientation program conducted by the Department of Human Resources and EH&S.

Container Labeling

All chemicals and chemical products that are in their original container must be clearly labeled, including the content, appropriate hazard warning, and name and address of the manufacturer. Supervisors must verify that all containers in their area of responsibility are properly labeled. If a proper label is not provided, the supervisor should contact EH&S for labels and instructions.

Supervisors must ensure that all secondary containers are labeled with either an extra copy of the original manufacturer's label or with other labels that contain at least the name of the chemical and the appropriate hazard warning. EH&S can provide assistance in labeling.

Non-routine Hazardous Tasks

When a university employee is required to perform a hazardous non-routine task involving a chemical substance, the supervisor should inform each affected employee of:

  • Specific chemical hazards;
  • Protective safety measures that can be taken;
  • Measures taken by the university to lessen the hazard (such as ventilation, respirators, required presence of fellow workers); and
  • Emergency procedures already established.
    Examples of non-routine tasks are work in confined places, work with asbestos, and work with PCBs.

Contractor Requirements

University policy requires all contractors to submit to EH&S a hazardous chemical list and/or material safety data sheets for those chemicals that fall within the scope of the Hazard Communication rules. This list should be submitted at least five (5) working days before introduction of the chemical to the campus. This gives EH&S time to provide safety information to university employees and other contractor employees who will be involved with the chemical.

Departments are responsible for removing, if possible, all hazardous chemicals to which contract employees may be exposed during their work. If requested, employing departments are responsible for supplying contractors with a chemical list and/or material safety data sheets prior to the beginning of any job. This information must include all hazardous chemicals to which contract employees will be exposed while at the job site and protective measures they may take to lessen the possibility of exposure.

It is the responsibility of the employing department to notify contractors of their right to this hazardous chemical safety information.

Chemical Waste Disposal

Hazardous chemical waste refers to any material substance that is

  • CORROSIVE (pH<2 or pH>12)
  • REACTIVE (oxidizers, water reactive)
  • FLAMMABLE (flash point <140 F)

Hazardous waste is incinerated (at off-site locations). Departments are charged for the cost of hazardous waste disposal, so departments are encouraged to employ waste reduction procedures to limit costs. Use the following guidelines to dispose of hazardous chemical waste.


  • All waste must be in appropriate NON-LEAKING containers with lids that are non-leaking, tight fitting and are not cracked, broken, or chemically damaged.
  • The container size should match the amount of waste.
  • Containers must be compatible with the waste contained.
  • Liquid containers must be less than 5 gallons and weigh less than 45 pounds.
  • Paper or cardboard primary containers should be put into sealed plastic bags.
  • Except for common solvents, which can be bulked together, waste disposal charges are related to container volume rather than solely a weight basis; a partially full container may cost the same as a full one.


  • All unused chemicals in original non-leaking containers with manufacturer's label will be accepted as is.
  • All other waste require an orange hazardous waste label, available from EH&S, which must be completed and attached to each waste container, except for very small containers.
  • Labels should be affixed in a manner that does not cover existing labels or markings.
  • Solvent labels should preferably be put onto string tags attached to containers. Tags are also available from EH&S.
  • Complete the LOWER part of the label with your name, building, room number, department, and identification of contents. Include total weight or volume and percent ranges for all constituents.


  • Generators should find cardboard boxes and make them available to EH&S staff at the time of waste removal.
  • DO NOT pack waste in boxes, since waste containers will be examined by visual inspection.
  • EH&S staff will pack waste in boxes according to compatibility.
  • Boxes should be sealed when necessary, and sturdy enough to transport the material.
  • Boxes exceeding 45 pounds or 18 inches on a side cannot be safely handled by one person, and will not be picked up.


  • To request waste pickup,
  • In all cases, furnish the following information:
    • Name
    • Phone
    • Department
    • FIS Index/account number
    • Pickup location (building & room number).
  • You will be notified of pickup date and approximate time (usually within 1 week)

Chapter 2 - Confined Space Entry Policy

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 2 – General Safety Rules


Certain environmental conditions within a confined space pose special dangers for workers, because space configuration hampers efforts to protect them from serious hazards. Employees shall not enter a confined space until appropriate safety measures have been taken to ensure a safe environment.


Safe entry into a confined space is the joint responsibility of the supervisor, the attendant and the employee who enters the space. Each entry into a confined space must be evaluated by the supervisor of the employee entering the space to determine the hazards involved and the appropriate safety measures, procedures, and controls. Supervisors must ensure that confined space entry procedures are followed and those personnel understand and comply with all safety requirements. Employees must inform their supervisor of any departure from required procedures.
It is the responsibility of Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) to assist supervisors in the identification, evaluation and labeling of all confined spaces in facilities controlled by OSU.


Supervisors must report to EH&S all locations in their work space that may be considered confined spaces in order that these areas can be evaluated and labeled with a sign if required.

The configuration of some confined spaces do not readily allow for the installation of a sign. For example all sewer and storm drains that are entered through a manhole are to be considered permit required confined spaces, whether labeled as such or not. Employees must not rely solely on the existence of a warning sign. Employees must be trained by their supervisor to recognize areas that may be confined spaces and not enter these areas until a determination is made.


Confined Space

A space defined by the existence of ALL of the following conditions:

  1. Large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work; and
  2. Limited OR restricted means for entry or exit; and
  3. Not designed for continuous employee occupancy.

Permit-Required Confined Space

A confined space, which has in addition to the three conditions which define a confined space, ONE OR MORE of the following characteristics:

  1. Contains or has a known potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere;
  2. Contains a material with potential for engulfment of an entrant;
  3. Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or a floor which slopes downward and tapers to a small cross-section; OR
  4. Contains recognized serious safety or health hazards.

Written Procedures

To protect employees, OSHA standards require employers to institute a “permit system” for entering certain confined spaces. All Oregon State University locations must develop written site-specific procedures for how to evaluate and enter permit-required confined spaces. The entry permit system must include written permits. Copies of completed permits should be kept as part of the departmental operating records. OSU Safety Instruction Number 2 describes and establishes the written procedures for the Corvallis campus.


Every employee who participates in a confined space entry project must have the understanding, knowledge, and skill necessary for the safe performance of duties assigned for the confined space entry, as part of the employee’s safety training. Supervisors are responsible to see that each of their employees has been provided the appropriate safety training.


When a contractor is expected to perform work in a confined space, the university’s contractor liaison will inform the contractor if the space is considered a permit-required confined space. The contractor will be advised of the elements, which create the permit-required confined space and the associated hazards. The contractor will also be advised of the facilities written confined space procedures. The contractor will be required to contact an OSU representative at the completion of the entry to discuss any hazards confronted or created during the entry.

When both a contractor and OSU employee will be making a joint entry, the entry will be coordinated by the OSU employee’s supervisor.

Chapter 3 - Energy Control Program

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 2 – General Safety Rules


The purpose of the OSU energy control program is to clearly define procedures for the control of hazardous energy. These procedures cover the servicing and maintenance of equipment in which the unexpected energizing, start up, or release of stored energy could cause serious injury to employees. All sources of energy, including electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, gravitational, and thermal need to be considered.

1. Lockout/Tagout Procedures

The primary method of control of hazardous energy is utilization of lockout/tagout procedures. Supervisors are responsible for identifying equipment having the characteristics defined above and for providing instruction in the lockout/tagout procedures to employees who work on that equipment. (Training materials are available through EH&S, 7-2505).

Employees trained in lockout/tagout procedures will be designated as authorized employees. Other employees working on or around this equipment, but not trained in the lockout/tagout procedures, will be known as affected employees.
The basic rule mandates that all equipment shall be locked or tagged to protect against accidental or inadvertent operation when such operation could cause injury to personnel.

Lockout versus Tagout

Lockout shall be the exclusive method used for the isolation of all energy sources that are designed to accept a locking device. Tagout devices, such as tags or signs, must be used if a locking device cannot be attached to the control switch or valve.

Tags and their means of attachment are to be substantial enough to prevent inadvertent or accidental removal. Nylon cable ties are the recommended method of tag attachment. Whenever major replacement, repair, renovation, or modification of equipment is performed, and whenever new equipment is installed, the energy control switch or valve for that equipment shall be able to accept a locking device.

Sequence of Lockout or Tagout System Procedures

The following sequence of lockout or tagout procedures shall be followed in all cases in which an employee is required to remove or bypass a guard or other safety device; and all cases in which an employee is required to place any part of the body into an area on a piece of equipment at the point of operation, or where an associated danger exists during an operating cycle.

  1. Notify all employees within the immediate affected area that a lockout or tagout is going to be utilized and the reason why.
  2. If the equipment is operating, shut it down by the normal stopping procedure.
  3. Operate the switch, valve, or other energy isolating device(s) so that the equipment is isolated from its energy source(s).
  4. Lockout and/or tagout the energy isolating devices with assigned individual lock(s) or tag(s). Lockout devices and tagout devices are to indicate the identity of the employee applying the device(s). Following the application of lockout or tagout devices, all potentially hazardous stored or residual energy shall be relieved, disconnected, restrained, or otherwise rendered safe.
  5. At this point the equipment is considered to be locked or tagged out.
  6. If lockout is the energy control method utilized, the authorized employee is to keep the key in his or her possession for the duration of the lockout period.

Restoring Equipment to Normal Operational Status

Procedures Before Removal

Before lockout or tagout devices are removed and energy is restored to the equipment, the employee shall follow these procedures:

  1. Inspect the work area to ensure that non-essential items have been removed and ensure that machine or equipment components are operationally intact.
  2. Check the work area to ensure that all employees have been safely positioned or removed.
  3. Before lockout or tagout devices are removed and before the equipment is energized, affected employees in the immediate area shall be notified that the lockout or tagout device will be removed.

Lockout or Tagout Device Removal

Each safety lockout or tagout device may only be removed by the employee who applied the device—with one exception. Removal of a safety lockout or tagout device by any other person than the one who applied the device may be done only by the direction of a supervisor and under the following procedure:

  1. The supervisor must verify that the authorized employee who applied the device is not at the facility.
  2. The authorized employee is to be informed that the lockout/tagout device has been removed before the employee resumes work at the facility.

Procedure Involving More Than One Person

In the preceding steps, if more than one individual is required to lockout or tagout the same equipment, each shall place his or her own personal lockout device or tagout device on the energy-isolating device(s). When an energy-isolating device cannot accept multiple locks or tags, a multiple lockout or tagout device (hasp) is to be used.

When more than one authorized person has implemented lockout/tagout in order to assist in the servicing or maintenance of equipment, only the person who applies the first lock and the person who removed the last lock will be required to notify employees in the immediate affected work area of the application and removal of lockout/tagout devices.

Testing or Positioning of Equipment or Components

In situations in which lockout or tagout devices must be temporarily removed from the energy-isolating device and the equipment energized to test or position the equipment or one of its components, the authorized employee will comply with the following:

  1. Clear the machine or equipment of tools and materials.
  2. Remove employees from the machine or equipment area.
  3. Remove the lockout or tagout device.
  4. Energize and proceed with testing or positioning.
  5. De-energize all systems and reapply the appropriate energy control device.

Outside Personnel (Contractors)

Whenever outside personnel are to be engaged in activities requiring the control of hazardous energy, they must use a lockout/tagout program. The OSU construction inspector and the outside contractor are to inform each other of their respective lockout or tagout procedures.

Periodic Inspection

The supervisor of each university unit that uses lockout/tagout will perform an annual inspection of the energy control procedure in the unit to ensure that the procedure and the requirements of OR-OSHA lockout/tagout rules are being followed.

  1. The annual inspection will be designed to correct any deviations or inadequacies observed.
  2. The annual inspection will include a review, with each employee, of that employee’s responsibilities under the energy control procedure being inspected.
  3. The supervisor will document that the periodic inspections have been performed. The documentation will identify the equipment on which the energy control procedure was being utilized, the date of the inspection, the employees included in the inspection, and the person performing the inspection.

Training and Communication

Training will be provided to ensure that the purpose and procedures of the energy control program are understood by employees and that the knowledge and skill required for the safe application, usage, and removal of lockout/tagout devices are conveyed to employees. The training will include the following:

  1. The supervisor will train each authorized employee in the recognition of applicable hazardous energy sources, the type and magnitude of the energy available in the work place, and the methods and means necessary for energy isolation and control.
  2. The supervisor will instruct each affected employee in the purpose and use of the energy control procedure.

Minimum Training Requirements for Tagout

Authorized employees will be trained in the following limitations of tags:

  1. Tags are essentially warning devices affixed to energy isolating devices, and do not provide the physical restraint on those devices that is provided by a lock.
  2. When a tag is attached, it is not to be removed except by the authorized person responsible for it, and it is never to by bypassed, ignored, or otherwise defeated.
  3. In order to be effective, tags must be legible and understandable by all employees whose work operations are or may be in the area.
  4. Tags and their means of attachment must be made of materials, which will withstand the environmental conditions encountered in the work place.
  5. Tags may evoke a false sense of security, and their meaning needs to be understood as part of the overall energy control program.
  6. Tags must be securely attached to energy-isolating devices so that they cannot be inadvertently or accidentally detached during use.

Employee Retraining

Retraining will be conducted whenever a periodic inspection reveals, or whenever there is reason to believe, that there are deviations from or inadequacies in the employee’s knowledge or use of an energy control device.

Documentation of Training

Supervisors will document that employee training has been accomplished.

2. Machinery Guarding Procedures

Manufacturers of new machinery and equipment are legally required to make sure dangerous parts are safely guarded so that operators and others are protected from injury.

Old farm machinery is sometimes poorly guarded. Extra moving parts like wheels and pulleys may have been added for various uses. Original guarding may have been removed for maintenance and not put back.

There may be times when an operator may need to reach over, under, around or into a machine while it is running. If so, any moving parts or other hazards must be appropriately guarded from human contact.

OSHA's machine guarding standard addresses farm machinery hazards and specifies that employees be instructed at initial assignment and again at least once a year to:

  • Keep all guards in place when any hazardous machine is in operation.
  • Prevent riders on farm field equipment other than persons required for instruction or assistance in machine operation.
  • Stop engine, disconnect the power source, and wait for all machine movement to stop before servicing, adjusting, cleaning, or unclogging the equipment, except where the machine must be running to be properly serviced or maintained, in which case the employer shall instruct employees as to all steps and procedures which are necessary to safely service or maintain the equipment.
  • Make sure everyone is clear of machinery before starting the engine, engaging power, or operating the machine.
  • Lock out electrical power before performing maintenance or servicing farm equipment.

A guard may be any shield, cover, casing, or physical or electronic barrier, intended to prevent contact between a hazardous machine part and any part of a person or a person's clothing.

Spot the hazard

Some of the hazards associated with machinery likely to cause injury include:

  • Rotating PTO and other shafts (e.g. joints, couplings, shaft ends and crank shafts);
  • Gearing (including friction roller mechanism), cables, sprockets, chains, clutches, cams or fan blades;
  • The run-off point of any belt, chain or cable. All belts are hazardous, especially if joints are not kept smooth;
  • Keyways, keys, grease nipples, set-screws, bolts or any other projections on rotating parts;
  • Any pulley or flywheel that incorporates any openings, spokes, protrusions, etc, that render it anything except totally smooth;
  • Any crushing or shearing points, e.g. augers and slide blocks, roller feeds, conveyor belts;
  • Ground wheels and track gear that incorporate protrusions, spokes, etc, that are adjacent to an operator's position (standing platform, seat, footrest) or passenger's seat;
  • Rotating knives, blades, tines or similar parts of power driven machines that operate in or near the ground or engage crops;
  • Any machine component that cuts, grinds, pulps, crushes, breaks or pulverizes farm produce;
  • Hot parts of any machine where the surface temperature exceeds 120C in normal operation;

Assess the risk

Once a hazard has been identified, assess the likelihood of the hazard resulting in injury to the operator or any other person, and the likely severity of any injury or harm.

Make the changes

Ensure machinery guards:

  • Are designed in a practical way to protect the user but allow ready access for operation and maintenance;
  • Are always in place on dangerous parts of machinery unless they are, by any reasonable definition, located out of reach of users, operators or bystanders;
  • Are conveniently placed so that users, operators and service and maintenance people are less likely to remove them permanently;
  • Are strong and durable enough for the machine part they cover;
  • Protect users, operators and bystanders against burns caused by hot parts;
  • Are ventilated where applicable to avoid the machine over-heating;
  • Are not removed until the machine is stopped and isolated with a tagged lock-out switch, and all sources neutralized, e.g. pressure in the hydraulic, or LPG gas line.

Safe procedure

Utilize safe procedures for machinery guarding.

  • For maintenance jobs, have a checklist procedure ensuring guarding is safely replaced.
  • Use approved lock-out and tag devices to prevent machinery being accidentally started during maintenance.
  • Redesign work processes to minimize risk from moving parts.
  • Get rid of machinery and eliminate work processes that can't be made safe.
  • Replace unguarded machinery with safer machinery.
  • Have guards designed and fitted for improvised machinery.

Chapter 4 - Personal Protective Equipment

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 2 – General Safety Rules

Use, Responsibility, and Cost

Protection for head, eyes, ears, skin, feet, hands, respiratory system, or body is necessary under certain hazardous working conditions in order to be in compliance with appropriate state safety laws. A general rule to follow is “use of personal protective equipment is required when there is a reasonable probability that injury or illness can be prevented by such equipment.”

Reasonable engineering controls, such as increased ventilation, are preferable to personal protective equipment. Where employees are required to wear personal protective equipment, the cost of the equipment should be considered a departmental expense.

Supervisors or instructors should consult with Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) or another qualified person to assess hazards in the areas where their employees work, to determine which of these areas may require the use of personal protective equipment, and to select the type and quality of the necessary equipment. It is the responsibility of all employees to wear personal protective equipment if it has been determined that its use is required. It is also the supervisor or instructor’s responsibility to ensure that workers, students, and visitors wear the protective equipment as specified.

An effort has been made to make the more common personal protective equipment readily available, either through the Chemistry Stores, Facilities Services Tool Room, or EH&S. The cost of this equipment may be charged against any approved departmental account. Those supervisors who do not have ready access to these campus store facilities may obtain personal protective equipment through any appropriate commercial safety equipment supplier. Supervisors should consult EH&S to ensure that the type of equipment selected is appropriate.


It is the responsibility of supervisors to provide training to their employees on identifying when the selected personal protective equipment is necessary, on how to use the equipment, and on proper care and maintenance of it.


The purpose of protective apparel is to provide protection for the body from chemical exposure, temperature extremes, and injury from sharp objects. Lab coats, chemical resistant aprons, and disposable tyvek suits are examples of protective apparel. Proper selection should be based on intended use.

Foot Protection

Appropriate footwear that is effective in preventing or limiting injury shall be worn where employees are exposed to conditions which may cause foot injuries. As a general rule, low-heeled, closed-toe shoes shall be worn in all laboratory operations where there is a likelihood of exposure to spilled chemicals. Where it is determined by a supervisor and EH&S that employees are exposed to a moderate risk of foot injuries from falling objects or crushing actions, employees will be required to wear safety-toe footwear. This safety-toe footwear must meet the requirements and specifications in American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard Z41.1 for Safety-Toe Footwear. Employees will be required to obtain this safety-toe footwear on their own. 

Eye Protection

Eye injuries can translate into pain, loss of time, money and even your eyesight. Even a slight loss or impairment of your vision is a tremendous price to pay for a moment of carelessness. It is a dreadful reminder of what taking a risk can mean. Wear proper eye protection where eye protection hazards are apparent and use common sense. Become acquainted with proper first aid treatment for eye injuries and seek medical attention if there is an eye injury.

Causes of Eye Injuries

Spray cans are an increasing source of chemical eye injury, compounded by the force of contact. Whether containing caustics or irritants, spray cans must be carefully used and kept away from children.

Particles of rocks, soil, crop material or other foreign objects thrown from farm equipment that chop or grinds can cause unexpected eye injury to the operator or bystander. Keep machinery properly shielded. Keep away from the discharge path.

Eye injuries are more likely to occur when servicing farm equipment than when operating it. Simple hand tools can cause severe eye injuries. Wear industrial strength eye protection when using hand tools. Select the right tool for the job.

Eye Protection

Protective eyewear should be carefully selected, fitted and cleaned. Protective eyewear should be reasonably comfortable and fit snugly without interfering with the movements or vision of the wearer. Protective eyewear should be durable, easily cleaned and capable of being disinfected. It should be kept clean and in good repair. To shield eyes from flying particles and objects, wear industrial-rated glasses or sun glasses and flexible or cushion-fitting ventilated plastic goggles that fit over ordinary eyeglasses. Adding side shields increases protection. Wear splash goggles when handling and applying agricultural chemicals. Employees can also wear welding goggles to protect their eyes from intense light and sparks. Full-face shields are another option for eye protection and can be worn comfortably. Store eye protection in clean, dust-proof containers.

Basic eye protection for the glasses or sunglasses wearer is a must. The glasses wearer should wear a face shield, goggles or spectacles with protective lenses. The glasses should be of industrial-quality with flame-resistant frames. Wearing outdated glasses or sunglasses offers no protection and may even be dangerous as they tend to splinter or shatter on impact.

Glasses, Goggles, and Face Shields

Safety Glasses and Goggles Appropriate eye protection shall be provided to and worn by employees whose jobs expose them to eye hazards. The minimum acceptable form of eye protection is safety glasses that meet the requirements specified in ANSI Z87.1, “Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection.” Impact and/or chemical resistant goggles or face shields provide additional protection and should be worn over normal corrective lenses unless prescription safety glasses are worn. Several styles of safety glasses and goggles are available on campus. See Personal Protective Equipment Location.

Prescription Safety Glasses Normal prescription glasses do not provide adequate protection from injury to the eyes and do not meet ANSI eye protection specifications. In order to provide approved safety glasses for those employees who require corrective lenses, a prescription safety glasses program has been established and is coordinated by EH&S.

To obtain prescription safety glasses an employee should follow this procedure:

The employee, working with their supervisor, will contact EH&S and obtain the necessary forms. Please see the EH&S Safety Glasses Prescription Program for policy and procedures.

Basic First Aid (Eye Injuries)

Proper first aid for eye injuries is critical. The method of first aid needed depends upon the type of injury sustained. Let natural tears wash out specks or particles in the eye. Try not to rub the eyes if possible. If this does not work, see a physician. For blows to the eye, apply cold compresses for 15 minutes and again each hour as needed to reduce pain and swelling. If the blow was hard enough to cause discoloration, see a physician. Internal damage could have occurred. For cuts and punctures to the eye, do not do anything to the eye but bandage it lightly and seek a physician at once.

Chemical burns on the eyes can be minor to very serious. Fresh water should be available for irrigating eyes anywhere chemicals are used. If the eye comes in contact with any chemical, it should be continuously flooded with water for at least 15 minutes. Do not put anything else in the eye. See a physician and take the label or container of the chemical involved.

Hand Protection

Gloves provide protection for the hands and arms from chemicals, temperature extremes, and abrasion. Their proper selection and use is vital to their ability to protect. This is especially true when dealing with potential exposure to chemicals. It is important to remember that both the thickness and the type of material in the glove affect its ability to serve as a barrier against a specific chemical. Specifications regarding compatibility of glove materials with chemicals are available from EH&S.
Another factor in the proper selection of gloves is the wearer’s need for dexterity. It is often advisable to reduce the size and thickness of the glove to allow the user to perform manipulations safely. Caution is also required in using gloves around moving equipment. Gloves should not be worn by anyone whose hands are exposed to moving parts in which they could be caught.

Hearing Protectors

Hearing protectors come in two forms: plugs and muffs. Each has specific advantages based on wearer comfort, work environment, and cost. Both are designed to reduce the noise to an acceptable level, although this ability is based on the level and type of noise and on the type of hearing protector.

Proper selection is important. According to OR-OSHA regulations, hearing protection must be available at no cost to all employees exposed to an 8-hour time weighted average (TWA) of 85 dBA (decibels, A-weighted). Employees exposed at 90 dB or greater must wear hearing protectors. Hearing protectors worn where noise is above this permissible level (90 dBA) must reduce the noise to a time-weighted average of 85 dBA or less.

It is the responsibility of supervisors to investigate whether their work environments expose employees to noise above the permissible level. EH&S can assist supervisors in this evaluation by performing sound level measurements and evaluations. If necessary, a hearing conservation program will be established which will include employee training and audiometric testing.

Nothing shall prevent the employee from wearing hearing protectors for reduction of annoyance noise or high-level noise of short duration. Hearing protectors should always be considered “personal” equipment and should not be used by other individuals, except for muffs that are adequately cleaned and sanitized.


Employees working in areas where there is possible danger of head injury from impact, falling or flying objects, or electrical shock and burns must wear protective helmets. The typical “hard hat” is the protective helmet of choice in most situations. Hard hats for short-term use can be obtained from the Facilities Services Tool Room.


The ability of respiratory protective equipment to provide adequate protection is based on proper selection and fit and on training in the use of the respirator. Therefore, respirators which are intended for protection against harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors must not be obtained or worn by employees without the approval of EH&S and in accordance with the Respiratory Protective Equipment Safety Program.

This program is managed by EH&S and has been established to comply with the OR-OSHA Regulations for Respiratory Protection. The specific requirements for the program are outlined in Safety Instruction 20, available from EH&S. EH&S maintains a supply of different types of respirators. If at all possible, respirators should be obtained through EH&S in order to ensure the proper selection and fit.

Persons should not be assigned to tasks requiring the use of respirators unless it has been determined that they are physically able to perform the work and use the equipment. The local physician shall determine what health and physical conditions are pertinent. The respirator user’s medical status should be reviewed annually.

Fall Protection and Harnessing (see also: elevated work surfaces, Chapter 10)

General Fall Protection Recommendations:

The following items are highly recommended to provide maximum protection of workers and ensure compliance with regulations and standards. All work environments are different, so the following are guidelines only. When establishing your own fall protection program, choose the correct system to meet your needs.

Warnings: Always read all instructions and warnings contained on and in the product packaging before using any fall protection equipment.

Inspection: All fall protection equipment should be inspected prior to use by following procedures outlined in the manufacturer’s brochure.

Training: All workers shall be trained by a competent person in the proper use of fall protection products.

Regulations: Understand all Federal, State, Local and Provincial regulations pertaining to fall protection before using the equipment.

Rescue Pre-Planning: Minimizing the time between a fall occurrence and medical attention of the workers is vitally important. A thorough rescue program should be established prior to using fall protection equipment. Employers should provide for a prompt rescue should a fall occur. Rescue procedures should be reviewed on a regular basis as part of the company's overall safety training program.

Equipment Preferences: If there are any doubts about which fall protection product to use, choose the following basic system:

Full-Body Harness with Sliding Back D-Ring Should a fall occur, the body harnesses would distribute the load throughout the body instead of concentrating the forces on the abdomen, as is the case with traditional body belts. The sliding back D-Ring will keep the worker in an upright position in the event of a fall, which allows the worker to remain as comfortable as possible while awaiting a rescue.

Shock-Absorbing Lanyards with Locking Snap Hooks Lanyards with built-in shock absorbers reduce fall arresting forces by 65-80% compared to forces generated by traditional lanyards. Locking snaps feature self-closing, self-locking keepers, which remain closed until unlocked and pressed open for connection or disconnection. This feature of locking snaps significantly reduces the possibility of accidental disengagement or "rollout."

Reliable Anchorage Points Anchor points or attachments must be capable of supporting 5000 lbs. per worker. If there is any doubt about the strength of the attachment point -- DO NOT ATTACH. Search for an alternative anchor point.

Chapter 5 - Manual Handling

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 2 – General Safety Rules

pdfManual handling or strain injuries can keep farm workers away from work for weeks at a time. They can happen from lifting, pushing, pulling, carrying, lowering, holding or restraining.

Injuries occur through:

  • Increased wear and tear or damage, e.g. from intense or strenuous manual activity;
  • Gradual wear and tear, e.g. from frequent or prolonged periods of activity (continuous handling of hay bales); heavy or awkward lifts;
  • Sudden damage, e.g. from unexpected movement (carrying a heavy object over uneven ground, stumbling, tripping or falling).

Spot the hazard

Conduct safety audits of all farm jobs involving manual handling. Take note of heavy, stressful, awkward or repetitive activities. Check injury records to see which activities have caused most strain injuries. Look for difficult handling jobs that could be made easier.

Assess the risk

Assess the likelihood of each identified hazard resulting in injury or harm. Use injury records to assess the potential risk of various tasks. If you consider there is a significant risk of serious injury, look for the best way to minimize the risk.

Make the changes

  • Plan ahead. Consider the safest possible ways of lifting, carrying, holding, lowering, pushing, pulling.
  • Eliminate unnecessary tasks.
  • Avoid double handling.
  • Use mechanical aids.
  • Carry out a safety check first.

Lighten the load

  • Where possible, choose lightweight materials.
  • Divide heavy loads into smaller loads.
  • Purchase in smaller bags.
  • Half fill containers.
  • Get help to share the load.

Reduce bending, twisting, reaching

  • Point your feet in the direction of the load you are carrying.
  • Keep tools and equipment within easy reach.
  • Build benches to waist height.
  • Keep frequently used items at waist height.

Follow a safe procedure

  • Plan the handling.
  • Clear the way.
  • Wear appropriate protective clothing.

Correct body techniques

  • When lifting a load from ground level, bend knees, keep back straight, keep load close to your body, lift with leg muscles, support forearms with knees, and support the load with your body.
  • When lowering a load, use leg muscles and lower the load by bending your knees, not your back. Where possible, support forearms on knees.

Avoid muscle fatigue

  • Warm up first.
  • Take frequent breaks.
  • Change jobs to use different muscles.
  • Gradually get used to the job.
  • Ensure the tractor seat is well sprung.
  • Adopt good posture when standing or sitting at a job.
  • Instead of crouching or squatting for low jobs, use a small stool.

Mechanical aids

Consider using:

  • Trolleys for heavy bags, drums or other weighty, awkward items;
  • Special trolleys to move and tilt 200 liter (55 gallon) drums;
  • Picket drivers for fencing;
  • Small mobile hoists or forklifts;
  • A fixed hoist on a utility or truck;
  • Mobile ramps or skids for loading and unloading trucks;
  • Crow bars, barrows, pulleys, hooks and jacks.

Chapter 6 - Physical Labor Safety Rules

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 2 – General Safety Rules

pdf1. Facial hair will not be worn by those whose work requires the use of respiratory equipment if it will affect the positive seal of such safety devices.

2. Do not use unapproved containers (drinking cups, bottled or canned food
containers, glass jars, etc.) to hold oil, industrial chemicals or solvents. All
chemical containers shall be labeled, closed when not in use and stored according to the manufacturer's instructions.

3. Wearing hand protection, eye protection, foot protection, protective clothing, hoods, head protection, respirators, or other safety equipment is mandatory in those areas and operations specified by your supervisor.

4. Wear clothing and footwear appropriate for the work you are hired to perform. Jewelry, rings, loose sleeves, ties, lapels, cuffs, tags, or other loose objects, which can be entangled in rotating machinery, shall not be worn. Ordinary shoes made of leather or other approved materials shall be worn as a minimum in locations where mechanical or manual work is done or where chemicals or other materials are handled. Slippers, canvas shoes, sandals, and shoes with open toes shall not be worn in such locations.

5. When assisting or observing work, which is hazardous, wear PPE that affords the same protection as that required for the person performing the work.

6. Do not disconnect alarms, warning devices, emergency equipment or similar systems without specific permission from your supervisor and the person responsible for the work area.

7. Do not ride in or on equipment not designed for transporting people.

8. Do not use makeshift devices to ascend or descend between different levels.

9. Do not work or stand under a suspended load. Stand clear of all objects being lifted by a hoist or other lifting equipment.

10. Do not attempt to operate industrial vehicles, cranes, or hoists unless you are authorized and trained to do so.

11. Do not load equipment beyond the prescribed capacity for its use.

12. Operate machines only when guards are in place and operational. Do not remove or alter any guard device.

13. Do not use machines that are danger-tagged. Switches, which are danger-tagged frequently, operate machines on which employees are working, and their lives may be endangered should the machine be started.

14. Stop power-driven machines or tools when performing inspection of work,
changing blades or accessories, discussing the work with others, or leaving the machine or tool unattended.

15. Never leave a piece of equipment or part in such a condition that the next employee could get hurt when he/she takes over where you left off.

16. Do not carry sharp objects in pockets or clothing.

17. Keep tools in good condition. Do not use chisels with mushroomed heads, dull saws, hammers with cracked handles, broken electric plugs, etc. Use the right tool for the job.

18. Do not use defective equipment or return a broken or defective tool to storage. The next employee who uses the tool may be seriously injured. Have the tool repaired.

19. Inspect wrenches often for worn or sprung jaws or other defects. Defective
wrenches should be taken out of service.

20. Do not remove or disengage guards provided by the manufacturer for any power tool.

21. All tools furnished to a worker or owned by workers are subject to inspections and approval by supervisors for safe design and construction for the work to be performed.

22. Do not use compressed air or gas for any other purpose than that for which it is provided. Do not use oxygen or any other gas from pressurized cylinders as a substitute for compressed air.

23. Workers are not permitted to use compressed air or gas to clean clothing they have on.

24. When cleaning surroundings or equipment with compressed air, the pressure must be reduced at the source to less than 30 psi or the nozzle used to reduce and end pressure to less than 30 psi when dead-ended or placed against an object.

25. Do not use explosive activated tools unless you are certified to do so.

26. Workers are not permitted to work in trenches five feet or more in depth without proper protection (see Excavation Operation Rules).

27. Check ladders before use. Do not use weak or defective ladders or ladders with missing steps, broken steps, cracked side rails, or broken hardware (see Elevated Work Surface Safety Rules).

28. Scaffolds shall be used according to the following rules:

  1. a. Platform planks shall be approved for such use and placed no more than one inch apart.
  2. b. Planks shall be placed so that tipping or sliding is not possible. Cleats must be used.
  3. c. Employees shall not work on the top level of scaffolds unless guard rails are in use.
  4. d. Employees shall not ride rolling type scaffolds (wheels must be locked when used).

Chapter 7 - Welding


The dangers in welding, cutting, heating and grinding should never be underestimated. Everyone doing these tasks should be properly trained to use the equipment safely and to understand the hazards involved.

Spot the hazard

Hazards associated with welding include:

  • The arc itself. The temperature of the arc can reach 6000 C. Intense ultraviolet and infrared rays can be harmful to both the welder and anyone else nearby. Damage to uncovered skin can be similar to severe sunburn. Unprotected eyes can become extremely red and sore and in extreme cases suffer permanent damage.
  • Welding gases. In gas welding, leaking oxygen can enrich the atmosphere so that a naked flame, cigarette, spark or electrical fault can be dangerous.
  • The fumes. Welding in confined and unventilated spaces should be avoided, because welding fumes can be fatal. Where it's not possible to ensure good ventilation.
  • Fumes and explosions. Avoid welding, cutting or heating empty drums. People have been killed this way when undetectable fuel residues vaporize and explode. Always check what's been inside, and if necessary clean the drum thoroughly before cutting, welding or heating. Welding heat can also generate toxic fumes from chemical residues. Avoid welding on coated metal surfaces, such as galvanized iron.
  • Heat. Hot metal surfaces, metal fragments and sparks can cause severe burns to unprotected skin.
  • Electric shock. The risk of electric shock in welding is high. Any electrical hazards should be identified and addressed. Check manufacturers' instructions.

Assess the risk

Check each of the above areas for potential to cause an injury or hazardous incident. Refer to accident records, safe work procedures, training and the experience of operators doing hazardous work. If risk of injury or harm is identified, take steps to minimize or eliminate the risk.

Make the changes

Here are some suggestions for making welding safer. Appropriate protective clothing should include:

  • A shield or helmet with a suitable grade of filtered lens;
  • A felt skull cap or beret;
  • Fire resistant gloves and leather apron;
  • Boots and leather spats;
  • Arm protection - long sleeves, leather if possible;
  • Fire resistant overalls.

To prevent deterioration, all protective clothing and equipment should be stored carefully, and kept clean and in good working order.

Replace asbestos-containing gloves and insulation on handling equipment.

Machine welding

  • Never attempt to connect or change welding cables before switching off main power.
  • Always install the welding machine as near as possible to the power point.
  • Always keep the welding machine terminals and cable connections clean and tight.
  • Only use welding cables that are fully insulated throughout their entire length.
  • Work on a well insulated floor wherever possible.
  • Wear rubber insulated shoes.
  • Always wear dry gloves when handling equipment that is live, e.g. when placing an electrode in a holder.
  • Always get a qualified electrician to do any electrical repairs.
  • Don't use gas pipes or water pipes as part of the welding circuit; it can cause an explosion or give someone a shock.

Gas welding

Leaking gases are a major hazard in gas welding. While fuel gas is usually recognized by its odor, oxygen leaks are potentially more dangerous because they are not easily recognized. Leaking oxygen can enrich the atmosphere so that a naked flame, cigarette, spark or electrical fault can be dangerous. Oils and greases may spontaneously ignite in the presence of pure oxygen.

  • Do not allow any fittings of oxy-acetylene equipment to be contaminated with grease or oil under any circumstances.
  • Do not oil unions, gauges or other components.
  • Have regulators regularly maintained by a competent person.
  • Regulators can fail in two ways - by the controlled forward flow of gas which is known as regulator "creep", or by the reverse flow of another gas in the gas lines. Regular maintenance can avoid these situations.
  • Either of these failures can be recognized by a higher than expected reading on the operational or low pressure gauge. The gauge needle creeps beyond the pressure set for actual welding or cutting. If this happens, stop work, close down the cylinder valves, and have the equipment repaired.
  • Take care not to drop or damage gauges and regulators.
  • Excess pressure or the presence of a different gas in a regulator can cause fire and explosions of varying severity, resulting in damaged equipment and operator injury.
  • Never use equipment fitted with a regulator in which a "creep" condition is known to exist.
  • Use the correct color and type of hoses and fittings recommended by the manufacturers. Copper must never be used on acetylene lines, as unstable substances are formed that may spontaneously detonate.
  • Flashback arresters should be fitted to all oxy-acetylene equipment to overcome the danger of flashback.
  • Oxy-acetylene or oxy-LPG equipment should not be left near hot equipment or metals that could burn the leads. Gas leaks can be detected using soap and water.
  • Proper maintenance of equipment is necessary to prevent accidents.
  • Don't light up welding equipment using cigarette lighters or matches. Use an appropriate flint or "piezo" electric ignition device.
  • Don't smoke when welding or near welding jobs, and don't keep your lighter in your pocket - it could explode. Simple prevention could save your life.
  • Have a suitable fire extinguisher close by for all welding, cutting, heating and grinding activities.
  • Obtain and refer to MSDSs (material safety data sheets) for all welding electrodes, welding rods and hazardous fluxes.

Chapter 8 - Workshops and Maintenance

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 2 – General Safety Rules


  1. Eye protection shall be worn at all times when operating power equipment and tools.
  2. Report all equipment defects immediately. Do not use unsafe equipment until it is repaired.
  3. When disconnecting equipment, pull on the plug, not the cord. Whenever the use of electrical extension cords is required, keep them clean, dry, and free from kinks. Protect them from oil, hot or sharp surfaces, and chemicals. Exterior cords should not be extended across aisles, through water, doors, or into areas where they are apt to be damaged.
  4. Use equipment properly; do not overload the motor by forcing cutting tools into the work.
  5. Do not leave power tools unattended while in operation.
  6. Portable electric circular and band saws shall not be used unless the guard mechanism is functioning properly.
  7. Oversized drill bits shall not be ground to fit smaller electric drills.
  8. Long hair and loose clothes must be restrained in a manner that will not allow them to be caught in machines.

Woodworking Machines

  1. Workers shall make sure that guards or other protective devices for woodworking machines are in place and properly adjusted before starting work. Workers shall not operate woodworking machines with cracked or defective blades or cutters.
  2. Workers shall not install blades or cutters unless they are designed to run at the speed of the machine on which they are to be mounted.
  3. Operators of woodworking machines SHALL NOT WEAR GLOVES unless the point of operation is completely guarded and contact with the blade, or moving parts, is not possible.
  4. A push stick or block shall be used for any operation which requires the fingers to be within 2 inches of the blade. Dust or wood scrap should not be removed from the danger area by hand. Always use a brush.
  5. Saw operators should not stand in line with material to be cut.
  6. The operator’s position should be kept clear of sawdust, blocks, etc., at all times.
  7. Power saws shall not be stopped by thrusting a block of wood against the cutting edge or side of the blade.
  8. Kickbacks on table saws are extremely hazardous. The following conditions may lead to injury:

    1. Improper alignment of the rip fence.
    2. Failure to use a spreader.
    3. Crosscutting narrow stock while using the rip fence as a stop.
    4. Attempting to rip or crosscut stock that is too large to control.
    5. Cutting warped, wet or twisted grain lumber that binds the blade.
    6. Failure to use anti-kickback dogs.
    7. Attempting to rip stock that does not have at least one straight edge for use against the fence.
    8. Failure to lock the fence securely in place.
    9. Using a dull or improperly set blade.
    10. Using a blade that is out of round, or improperly balanced.

Grinding Machines

  1. Grinding wheels and wire brushes shall not be operated in excess of the speed recommended by the manufacturer. Check the recommended rpm against that of the shaft or motor before mounting a new wheel. Check all grinding wheels for chips and cracks before use.
  2. Face shields, safety glasses, or chipper’s goggles shall be worn at all times when grinding or using a wire brush.
  3. Gloves shall not be worn while grinding, nor will cloth be used to hold work pieces.
  4. Do not operate grinding machines unless metal wheel hoods are in place. Do not apply work too quickly to a cold wheel.
  5. Tool rests shall be secured at all times and adjusted to within 1/8 inch of the wheel. Top wheel guards shall be adjusted to within 1/8 inch of the top of the wheel.
  6. Disc grinder tables shall be adjusted to within 1/8 inch of the disc.
  7. When a grinder is first turned on, do not stand in line with the grinding wheel. If any wobble or vibration is noticed, the machine must be turned off and repaired.
  8. Except where specifically designed, one should not grind on the sides of the grinding wheel.
  9. Do not grind wood, aluminum, copper, or other soft materials on wheels designed for steel and iron.

Metal Lathes

  1. Chip guards should be used in operations that could endanger the operator or others nearby.
  2. Chip breakers shall be used whenever practical. Tool ways must be kept clear and clean.
  3. Tools should not be set or adjusted while the lathe is in operation. Tools and chucks must be checked for defects before use.
  4. Brushes or chip pullers shall be used for removing chips. Operators shall not use their hands, or compressed air in excess of 30 psi, to remove chips.
  5. Heavy chucks, face plates, or other heavy equipment should never be handled without proper lifting equipment.
  6. Tools or other equipment shall not be stored on top of the head stock.
  7. Rotating stock extending into aisles should be marked with a warning device (yellow tape, rag, tag) or contained by physical barrier.
  8. Magnesium or similar metals shall not be machined unless appropriate fire protection is provided.
  9. Do not stop lathe with tool bit in the cut, or with feed clutch engaged. Hand pressure should not be used to stop free spinning chucks.

Metal Cutting Band Saws

  1. Before starting an operation, be sure the machine is set for the recommended speed, feed, and blade type for the material to be cut.
  2. A complete face shield shall be worn when blades are electrically welded on the machine.
  3. The portion of the blade between the upper wheel and the saw table should be completely enclosed except for the point at which the cut is made.
  4. Inspect and adjust the table and blade guide to be sure that small parts cannot jam between the table and moving blade.
  5. The length of the exposed blade should not be more than 3/8 inch greater than the thickness of the stock being cut.
  6. Use pliers, tongs, jigs, or other hold-down devices when sawing small parts that could jam between the blade and saw guide.
  7. Warn personnel or install barriers during sawing or welding operations that throw hot sparks onto nearby work stations.

Metal Planers, Shapers, drilling and Boring Machines

  1. Always use brushes or chip pullers to clean the work area. Operators shall not use their hands or compressed air in excess of 30 psi to remove chips.
  2. Always clamp the work securely before starting the cut. Do not measure the job while the machine is in operation.
  3. Always remove the stroke-change screw handle before starting the shaper.
  4. Do not place heavy parts or tools on the machine without the use of approved lifting equipment.
  5. Only soft metal or plastic hammers should be used when setting up jobs on a drill press or boring mill.
  6. Adjustable wrenches should not be used on the machine parts or equipment. Properly sized box or open-end wrenches should be used.
  7. Do not operate drill presses with dull tools.
  8. Never make adjustments on the chuck when the machine is in motion.
  9. Boring mill operators should never attempt to make measurements near the tool, reach across the table, or adjust the work while the spindle is turning.
  10. When deep holes are being drilled beyond the flutes of the drill, the drill should be withdrawn frequently to keep it free of chips.
  11. Stop the machine before attempting to clear work that has been jammed.

Power Presses and Forming Equipment

  1. Do not operate power punch presses without “point of operation guarding.” Do not remove or modify guards.
  2. Power presses shall not be operated in the continuous tripping cycle unless the point of operation is guarded on all sides by approved barrier guards.
  3. Safety tongs shall be used whenever it is necessary to reach into the point of operation of any machine.

Explosive Actuated Tools

  1. Explosive actuated tool operators must be trained and certified for this work.
  2. Always wear safety goggles to avoid the possibility of flying chips, etc.
  3. Never, under any conditions, attempt to discharge a stud or pin into free flight.
  4. Use only the appropriate boosters, studs, and pins designed for the tool.
  5. Never drive a stud or pin into extremely hard surfaces such as glazed tile, glazed brick, glass, tool steel, etc. Such surfaces may cause a ricochet.
  6. Do not drive fasteners closer than 3 inches from the edge of concrete, brick, or other like materials.
  7. Do not drive fasteners closer than 1/2 inch from the edge of steel.
  8. In the event of misfire the tool is to be held in operating position for a minimum of 30 seconds before disassembly.

Handling Chemicals

  1. Do not wash hands in cleaning solvents. Absorption of these liquids through the skin can cause serious illness.
  2. Do not handle chemicals of any type unless you are aware of the potential skin and inhalation hazards. Consult the appropriate MSDS.
  3. Wear appropriate skin, face, eye, and hand protection when moving or handling bulk chemicals.
  4. Always wear chemical resistant gloves, aprons, and complete eye protection when handling corrosive chemicals. If chemicals contact skin, wash with large amounts of water immediately.
  5. Do not open chemical containers that have been stored in the sun unless proper care is taken. Many chemicals will build up pressure in the container when exposed to heat.
  6. Clean up small chemical spills immediately if you can do it safely; otherwise, notify supervisor.

Key Points and Supporting Information

  1. Wear approved eye protection. Industrial-quality eye protection should be worn at all times. Safety glasses should have the Z87.1 logo on them to assure they are industrial quality.
  2. Wear proper clothing. This varies depending on the type of hand tool you are working with. Work clothing should not be loose, baggy, or highly flammable. To protect against burns, wear clothing such as coveralls, high-top shoes, leather aprons and leather gloves. Remove all paper from pockets and wear cuffless pants. When working with heavy metals wear hard-toed shoes with non-skid soles. Avoid wearing synthetic clothing because it has a low flashpoint, which can result in severe burns. Do not wear jewelry. It can get caught in moving parts.
  3. Protect your hair, scalp, and head. Pull back long hair in a band or a cap to keep it from getting caught in tools. Be extremely careful with long hair when using a drill or drill press. When handling carpentry materials wear a hard hat or bump cap to protect your head.
  4. Watch your fingers. Take special care when hammering so that you strike the object, not your fingers.
  5. Keep your mind on your work. Avoid horseplay and loud talk. Loud talking as well as pushing, running, and scuffling while working with hand tools can cause serious accidents. Be alert and work defensively.
  6. Keep work area and tools clean. Dirty, greasy, and oily tools and floors can cause accidents. Clean and put away all unneeded tools and materials. Clean up spills and scraps from the floor and equipment. Keep paths to exits clear. If conditions are dusty, use a respirator.
  7. Use tools properly. Always use proper-sized tools and equipment for the job. Use each tool only for the job for which it was intended. Forcing a small tool to do the job of a large one may result in injury or tool damage. Never use a screwdriver to see if electrical circuits are hot. Never use a machinist's hammer in place of a carpenter's hammer. Do not strike a hardened steel surface, such as an anvil, with a steel hammer because a small piece of steel may break off and injure someone. Be sure wrenches fit properly. Never use pliers in place of a wrench. Never strike wrenches with hammers. Pull on wrenches, do not push. When sawing secure the material in the saw vise.
  8. Keep cutting-edge tools sharp. Dull cutting-edge tools are dangerous, as they require excessive pressure and hammering to make them cut. When cutting always cut away from the body. Before using any cutting tool, remove nails or other objects that might destroy the tool's cutting edge.
  9. Carry and store tools properly. All sharp-edge tools and chisels should be carried with the cutting edge down. Never carry sharp tools in a pocket. Store all sharp-edge cutting tools with the sharp edges down.
  10. Inspect tools before using. Avoid using damaged tools. Tools that appear to be damaged or have broken handles should be marked unsafe. Do not use them until they have been repaired.
  11. Grip tools firmly. Hold hand tools securely so that they do not slip and hit someone. Do not wear gloves--they are bulky and make gripping tools difficult.

Chapter 9 - Forklift Operations

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 2 – General Safety Rules

Forklift Operations Safety Rulespdf

  1. Only authorized, trained personnel shall operate lift trucks.
  2. Before start of shift, a visual inspection must be made to ensure that horn, lights, brakes, tires, gas supply, hydraulic lines, etc. are in safe working condition. Employees shall not operate an unsafe forklift at any time.
  3. Fill fuel tanks out of doors while engine is off.
  4. Do not exceed the safe load capacity of a forklift at any time. Do not counterweight a forklift to increase lifting capacity.
  5. Operators shall drive with both hands on the steering wheel. Horseplay is prohibited. Do not drive with wet or greasy hands.
  6. No person shall ride as a passenger on a forklift or on the load being carried.
  7. A forklift will not be used to elevate a platform or pallet with persons on it, except work platforms especially designed for this purpose. Work platforms must have standard guard rails, and must be securely fastened to the forks.
  8. No person shall stand or walk under elevated forks.
  9. Operators should avoid making jerky starts, quick turns, or sudden stops. The operator will not use reverse as a brake.
  10. Forklifts should be driven on the right side of the road or aisle-way.
  11. Operators shall cross railroad tracks diagonally whenever possible.
  12. Forklifts shall be operated at a safe speed with due regard for traffic and conditions. Maximum speed limits: inside buildings, 5 mph; outside buildings in work areas, 7 mph; on roads, 10 mph.
  13. Slow down on wet and slippery surfaces and at cross aisles or locations where vision is obstructed.
  14. Operators entering a building or nearing a blind corner shall make their approach at reduced speed. Sound horn and proceed carefully.
  15. Standard arm signals will be used at all times.
  16. Operators shall give pedestrians the right-of-way at all times.
  17. Operators shall not drive toward any person who is in front of a fixed object or wall.
  18. Operators shall not overtake and pass another forklift traveling in the same direction, at intersections, blind spots, or hazardous locations.
  19. Operators should not put their fingers, arms, or legs between the uprights of the mast, or beyond the contour of the forklift.
  20. When the forklift is not carrying a load, the operator shall travel with the forks as low as possible (maximum of 3 inches on paved surfaces). When carrying a load, it should be carried as low as possible (consistent with safe operation, 2 to 6 inches above the surface.)
  21. Forks should always be placed under the load as far as possible. Do not lift a load with one fork.
  22. No load should be moved unless it is absolutely safe and secure.
  23. The operator's view should not be obstructed by the load. In the event of a high load, the forklift will be driven backward.
  24. Operators shall look in the direction of travel.
  25. The forks should not be operated while the forklift is traveling.
  26. On a downgrade, the load shall be last, and the forks raised only enough to clear the surface.
  27. On an upgrade, the load shall be first, and the forks raised only enough to clear the surface.
  28. Use extra care when handling long lengths of bar stock, pipe, or other materials.
  29. Avoid sharp or fast end-swing.
  30. Compressed gas cylinders shall be moved only in special pallets designed for this purpose.
  31. When unloading trucks or trailers, the brakes on the vehicle will be set (locked) and the wheels chocked.
  32. Forklifts must be safely parked when not in use. The controls shall be neutralized, power shut off, brakes set, key removed, and the forks left in a down position flat on the surface, and not obstructing walkways or aisles.
  33. A forklift shall not be left on an incline unless it is safely parked and the wheels blocked.

Chapter 10 - Elevated Work Surface Safety Rules

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 2 – General Safety Rules

  1. pdfAll wall openings, open-sided floors or platforms 4 feet or more above an adjacent floor or ground must be guarded by a standard railing, which may require a toeboard.
  2. Fall protection is required wherever employees are working on unguarded surfaces more than 10 feet above a lower level, or at ANY height above dangerous equipment. Fall protection requires the use of lifelines, safety belts or harnesses, and lanyards.
  3. Employees working on roofs where the ground to eave height is greater than 10 feet shall be protected from falling from all unprotected sides and edges of the roof using one of the following:
    1. Motion stopping safety device
    2. Warning line system
    3. Safety monitoring system on roofs of 50 feet or less in width
  4. A warning line system consists of a rope, wire or chain supported 34 to 39 inches above the roof, flagged at least every 6 feet, located:
    1. 10 feet from the roof edge when mechanical equipment is being used; or
    2. 6 feet from the roof edge when mechanical equipment is not being used.
  5. A safety monitoring system makes use of a competent person whose only task is to monitor and warn other workers on the roof that they are in risk of falling.
  6. All roof openings or holes inside a work area shall be covered.


  1. Portable stepladders longer than 20 feet should not be used or available.
  2. Ladders come in three types:
    1. (industrial), 3 to 20 feet long, for heavy duty work;
    2. (commercial), 3 to 12 feet, for medium duty;
    3. (household), 3 to 6 feet, for light duty work.
  3. Portable stepladders must have a spreader or locking device to securely hold the front and back sections in the open position. Before use, be sure stepladders are open all the way and locked into safe position.
  4. All portable ladders should have insulating non-slip material supplied on the bottom of the rails.
  5. Portable single section rung ladders shall not be more than 30 feet long.
  6. Portable multiple section rung ladders shall not be more than 60 feet long.
  7. Rung ladders should be placed so that the distance from the wall to the foot of the ladder is one/fourth the length of the ladder. Set the ladder at an angle of about 75 degrees with the ground.
  8. Rung ladders are to be placed to prevent slipping, or they must be lashed in position. Do not place ladders on boxes, barrels, or other unstable bases, or lean ladders against movable objects.
  9. Don't use ladders in front of doors that open towards the ladder unless the door is blocked, locked, or guarded.
  10. Ladders with broken or missing steps, rungs, cleats, rails will be taken out of service.
  11. Ladders used to gain access to a roof should extend at least 3 feet above the point of support at eave, gutter, or roof line.
  12. Never work from the top rung or the second rung from the top of a straight ladder. Never work from the top plate of a step ladder.
  13. Do not use a metal ladder when working on or near electrical circuits, power lines, or live electrical apparatus.
  14. Face the ladder when climbing up and down, grasping the side rails or rungs with both hands.
  15. Avoid carrying heavy loads up or down ladders. Make use of hoisting equipment.
  16. Do not overreach; take time to move the ladder closer to the work. Do not straddle the space between the ladder and another object.
  17. Planks shall not be used on top of step ladders.

Aerial Lifts

  1. Aerial lift devices (boom platforms) will be operated only by trained employees.
  2. Test lift controls on boom trucks each day prior to use.
  3. When working from an aerial lift, a body belt must be worn and a lanyard attached to the boom or basket. Belting off to an adjacent pole, structure, or equipment is NOT permitted.
  4. Do not sit or climb on the edge of the aerial lift basket.
  5. Set brakes on boom trucks. When using outriggers, position on pads or on a solid surface.
  6. Don't move an occupied aerial lift truck with the boom elevated in a working position unless the equipment is specifically designed for such work.
  7. Any aerial lift vehicles exposed to traffic will have clearly visible flashing warning lights operating during use.
  8. Do not operate aerial lift devices with any portion of the lift closer than 10 feet from live overhead electric power lines.


  1. Scaffolding shall be used if solid footing or a safe ladder is not available.
  2. Caster brakes shall be set before an employee gets on a scaffold. If no brakes are available, another employee should be in position to secure the scaffold.
  3. Scaffolding shall be secured at intervals of 15 feet to a solid support. Securing will be by wire, cable, chain or rope.
  4. Ladders, boxes, etc. should not be set on scaffolds to increase working heights.
  5. Scaffolds shall not be moved with employee(s) or materials on the scaffold.
  6. Scaffolding shall not be moved until its height is reduced below 15 feet. Sufficient help shall be used to move the scaffold. A "watcher" shall be posted to watch for overhead obstructions as well as holes, etc., at ground level.
  7. Guardrails and toe boards are required on any scaffold over five feet high.
  8. Flooring shall be solid from side-to-side and secured in place with cleats.
  9. It is your responsibility to keep all tools and materials away from the edges of the scaffold and platform openings.
  10. Scaffolding over 50 feet high shall be inspected by a “competent person” as defined in OAR 1926.450.

Chapter 11 - Electrical Operations

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 2 – General Safety Rules

pdfSpot the hazard

Check to ensure electrical fittings, fixtures, plant and equipment, wiring, insulation, switches, power cords, plugs, earth wires, guarding, and welding equipment are in good condition and regularly maintained.
Look for shorting or sparking fittings. Avoid using electrical equipment in wet conditions. Wear safe footwear and clothing. For work on wires, plugs, switches, fuses and electrical plant, call the electrician.

Assess the risk

Assess each identified hazard for likelihood and severity of possible injury or harm. If there is any risk of electric shock or electrocution, you should have a safe procedures to ensure the hazardous plant is put out of use and either isolated, or kept in a safe place until repaired or discarded.

Make the changes

The following suggestions will help to minimize or eliminate the risk of electric shock.

  • Always employ an electrician for power alterations or repairs.
  • Ensure wiring, equipment, leads and plugs are kept in good repair.
  • Don't overload your wiring installation.
  • Don't remove guards or covers from electrical switch gear.
  • In areas exposed to wind and rain, always use weather-proof outlets and fittings.
  • Avoid using outdoor electrical equipment in wet weather.
  • All lights exposed to breakage by farm tools should be fitted with wire guards.
  • Old rubber-insulated wiring is now unsafe, and should be replaced.

Outdoor power lines

  • Make sure tall items like balers and headers are kept well clear of overhead wires.
  • Never ride on top of high loads.
  • If your crop-dusting is done by airplane, tell the pilot beforehand about any power lines in the area.
  • Plan farm roads to avoid passing under power lines, and have new power lines installed so they don't cross over roads.
  • Always check the location of power lines before you start work.
  • Always check plans and records of underground power lines before any digging or earthworks.
  • Never stack irrigation pipes or park machinery under power lines.
  • Never up-end a pipe before looking up. Carry pipes horizontally.
  • Remember, power line heights are deceptive. Know the operation and maximum height of your machine.
  • Have an observer check your position when working close to overhead power lines.
  • If in doubt, always contact the supply authority for advice and assistance.
  • If you see a power line that has been damaged or has fallen down, keep clear and notify the supply authority.

Power tools

  • When buying a portable power tool, double insulated is safer.
  • Never use a light socket to operate a power tool.
  • Don't use tools if the casing is broken or damaged. Damaged cords and plugs should be replaced.
  • Regularly check power tools are free from external damage or makeshift repairs. This includes leads and plugs.
  • Don't make adjustments to a tool without first switching it off and removing the plug from the power point.
  • All bench-mounted equipment, such as power saws or grinders, should be effectively grounded - except for those with double insulation.
  • Don't use makeshift extension lights. Use a type with a guard around the globe and an insulated handle.

Welding equipment

  • Switch off power before connecting welding leads to terminals.
  • Check leads are correctly connected to terminals marked 'electrode' and 'work'.
  • Ensure supply terminals and live parts are suitably enclosed and protected.
  • Ensure welding terminals are shrouded to prevent inadvertent contact or short circuits.
  • Check the frame of welding equipment is effectively grounded.
  • Don't use leads if they have bare sections. Replace them.
  • Never use bare hands on metal parts of electrode holders or electrodes while the welder is switched on. Never rest the electrode on your body.
  • Be sure to keep waste material away from the welder.

Chapter 12 - Painting Operations Safety Rules

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 2 – General Safety Rules


  1. Do not perform work in a heavily populated area, including building air intake areas, until appropriate warnings are posted and occupants notified. If possible, rope off the immediate work area to prevent injury to bystanders.
  2. Protect your working area with warning flags and traffic cones when working road and traffic lines.
  3. When spraying roofs or building exteriors, have adequate barricades and signs to detour traffic.
  4. Eye protection is required whenever rust or loose paint is removed from surfaces with a wire brush. A hard hat is required if the work area is exposed to falling objects.
  5. To avoid splinters, always observe the condition of the wood before sanding.
  6. Store and dispense flammable solvents from approved safety cans only.
  7. Follow the manufacturer's instructions for handling all epoxy materials, thinners, catalysts, paint removers, etc. Gloves and respirators may be required.
  8. Clean all working areas after each job and/or shift.
  9. Make sure that you wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water before handling food.
  10. Inspect all ladders and scaffolds before you begin work.
  11. Make a safety check of all equipment such as staging tools, spray pots, hoses, fitting hooks, etc.
  12. An approved life line, independently fastened to the building above the worker, is required for each worker on a swinging scaffold, boatswain's chair, or unguarded slope 20 feet or more above ground level.
  13. Make sure that planks or ladder stages are long enough to extend well beyond the supports.
  14. Do not climb onto or use rolling-type scaffolds unless wheels are fully locked.
  15. Inspect all rope before use. Rope used around acid or caustics should be inspected frequently during use.
  16. Do not use fiber rope that cannot easily be bent or worked, or if fibers seem to be dry or brittle.
  17. Do not use fiber rope near sandblasting, or where there is exposure to chemical washing solutions.


  1. An approved respirator should be worn when spray painting is being done.
  2. Do not paint in shops, chemical laboratories, chemical storage rooms, or similar locations without specific instructions from the supervisor of such locations.
  3. Do not perform spray painting in tanks, tunnels, or other confined spaces without specific permission from your supervisor. Appropriate breathing equipment, and/or controls are required for such work to assure that the atmosphere is safe.
  4. Do not break connections in pressurized air hose lines.
  5. Airless spraying with flammable materials should not be performed in confined areas unless there is sufficient ventilation to keep the atmosphere below the lower explosive limit of the material.
  6. Airless spraying with flammable materials may cause generation of static electricity. This will require grounding of both the spraying equipment and the object to be sprayed.
  7. Do not point an airless spray gun at any part of the body. Do not clean airless spray guns while there is pressure in the system.
  8. Inspect and clean all gauges, gaskets, and valves on all spray equipment to ensure that they are in good working order.
  9. Do not interfere with the mechanical operation of safety devices designed to protect you from contact with the spray under pressure.
  10. Do not leave rags saturated with paint or thinner lying around in a pile. In order to avoid a fire, see that these rags are left unfolded until they are properly aired out and then discard them in approved containers. Storage in a water filled container is recommended.
  11. Spontaneous ignition can occur if certain types of spray paint residues are permitted to mix or accumulate.
  12. Dispose of surplus paints and solvents by approved methods only.
  13. Removal of lead-based paint requires additional personal protective equipment, and air sampling to determine lead exposure.

Chapter 13 - Firearms, Weapons, Destructive Devices

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 2 – General Safety Rules

The Oregon Administrative Rules contain OAR’s filed through April 13, 2001


(1) "Firearm" means a weapon or device, by whatever name known, which is designed to expel a projectile by the action of black powder, smokeless powder, compressed air, gas, compressed spring or by any chemical action, and which is readily capable for use as a weapon.

(2) "Weapon" means any knife having a blade that projects or swings into position by force of a spring, by centrifugal force or by gravity and is commonly known as a switchblade knife; any hunting or target bow, any crossbow; any dirk, dagger, slingshot, metal knuckles; or any similar instrument by the use of which injury could be inflicted upon the person or property of any other person.

(3) "Destructive Device" means:

(a) A projectile containing an explosive or incendiary material or any other chemical substance; or
(b) A bomb, grenade, missile, or similar device or any launching device therefore.

(4) "University Sanctioned Use" means: R.O.T.C., OSU Pistol Club, OSU Rifle Club, or other uses approved by the Vice President for Finance and Administration.

(5) "Designated Storage Area" means: Areas designated by OSU Security Services as secure areas for storage of firearms, including the ROTC, OSU Pistol Club and OSU Rifle Club storage areas.

Prohibitions and Regulations

(1) Possession, use, or threatened use of firearms, ammunition, ammunition components including but not limited to smokeless powder, black powder, primers and percussion caps, dangerous chemicals, weapons, or destructive devices, are not allowed on property owned or controlled by Oregon State University except as expressly authorized by law or authorized in this rule. Possession of a concealed weapons permit does not constitute authorization by law for purposes of this rule.

(2) University students may bring firearms and ammunition to campus only in connection with a University sanctioned use.

(3) University employees may bring firearms and ammunition to campus only for University sanctioned use.

(4) While not in use, firearms must be stored at all times in a University designated storage area.

(5) Firearms, weapons, destructive devices or ammunition may be used on campus owned or controlled property only in connection with a University sanctioned use. Use must be consistent with the regulations of the organization conducting the sanctioned use.

(6) University staff in the Departments of Animal Sciences, Crop and Soil Sciences, Rangeland Resources, Horticulture, Fisheries and Wildlife, Branch Agricultural Experiment Stations, and College of Veterinary Medicine may possess a firearm while performing their authorized duties. When not in use, firearms must be removed from University property or stored in a designated storage area.

(7) Firearms must have a trigger guard in place before being brought on to University owned or controlled property. The trigger guard shall remain in place while the firearm is stored in the designated storage area.

(8) This rule does not apply to University family housing units or University-owned single family dwellings.


(1) Any person who violates this rule is subject to:

(a) Institutional disciplinary proceedings, if a student or employee;
(b) An order to leave the immediate premises or property owned or controlled by the University by a person in charge of University property.

(2) Persons failing to comply with an order by a person in charge to leave or to remain off the immediate premises or property owned or controlled by the University are subject to arrest for criminal trespass.

(3) The Vice President for Finance and Administration, the Director of Facilities Services, Vice Provost for Student Affairs, Coordinator of Student Conduct, Director of University Housing and Dining Services, Director of Conferences and Special Events, Director of the Memorial Union and Educational Activities, Manager of Security Services, and their designees are included among those "persons in charge" of University property for purposes of ORS 164.205(5) and this rule.

Chapter 14 - Severe Weather

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 2 – General Safety Rules

pdfLightning Protection for the Farm

Lightning is the leading cause of farm fires. A well-installed and maintained lightning protection system routes lightning along a known, controlled course between the air and moist earth with over 90 percent effectiveness in preventing damage. Such systems can prevent damage to a building or any loss of income related to this damage.

Lightning protection systems consist of five parts: 1) air terminals, 2) conductors, 3) ground connections, 4) bonding, and 5) arrestors.

  1. Air terminals are rods or tubes of metal that are installed at every projecting high point of a building, such as roof peaks, chimneys, dormers, ventilators, gables, flagpoles, towers and water tanks. To be effective they must not be spaced too widely apart.
  2. Conductors connect air terminals with grounds. Conductors are copper or aluminum cables. Galvanic action will occur between aluminum and copper; therefore, only one metal should be used for the system or direct contact between the two should be avoided.
  3. Grounds and ground connections provide contact with the earth for dissipation of the lightning charge. Usually, at least two ground connections are needed for any building -- more with large or complex structures. They should be apart from building foundations and extend deeply enough to reach moist subsurface earth no matter how dry the weather.
  4. Bonding is the interconnecting of metal parts to prevent sideflash.
  5. Lightning arrestors guard against damage that might occur by way of the electric power lines. Properly designed lightning arrestors should be placed between the power circuit and ground where the circuit enters the building. Large trees need protection from lightning. In addition, trees that are taller than or within 10 feet of a building need protection to prevent flashover. Also, lightning may cause a tree to fall on a building.

Livestock often are killed when they are near a fence or tree that receives a lightning discharge. Wire fences need to be grounded. Use galvanized steel posts at 150-foot intervals along the fence. It also is recommended that long runs of wire fence be interrupted. Lone trees should be either fenced off to keep livestock away from them or be protected by a lightning protection system.

In an approved lightning protection system the house, barns, sheds, silo and all other buildings are protected. All metal tracks, guys, lines and other metal bodies are bonded to the system as required. Arrestors are installed where needed. Lone trees are protected. Metal fences are properly grounded. Electrical entrance services have Underwriters Laboratory (UL) approved arrestors.

Local fire officials should be contacted for conformance with local codes as may apply.

Chapter 15 - Motor Vehicle Maintenance Safety Rules

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 2 – General Safety Rules

  1. pdfEye protection is mandatory for all operations which produce sparks, chips, flying objects or involve use of corrosive chemicals. Face shields shall be worn for all operations that involve use of a high-pressure steam system. Appropriate gloves and protective clothing shall also be worn.
  2. Mechanics shall not wear loose clothing around rotating equipment. Clothes saturated with oil, grease, or solvents shall not be worn.
  3. Compressed air shall not be used to clean clothing.
  4. Shop floors will be kept free of grease, oil, gasoline, or other slipping hazards.
  5. Employees shall not use defective electrical or mechanical shop equipment or hand tools. All automotive shop machinery shall be grounded.
  6. Vehicles shall not be towed unless appropriate tow bars or other approved equipment is used.
  7. Jacks, hoists, or other lifting devices shall not be used beyond the safe load capacity recommended by the manufacturer. Employees shall not remain in vehicles being lifted by hydraulic lifts or jacks.
  8. Mechanics shall not work under vehicles that are not properly supported with approved stands. Makeshift stands made of wood, cement blocks, or boxes shall not be used.
  9. Gasoline, acetone, kerosene, or similar solvents shall not be used to clean hands, floors, walls, or other surfaces. Parts shall be cleaned only in approved containers using appropriate solvents.
  10. Employees shall not use standard sanitary sewer drains for the disposal of gasoline, oil, or solvents. Contact EH&S for disposal guidelines.
  11. Tanks or containers that are used for gasoline or other flammable solvents shall not be mechanically opened or repaired by welding without purging and cleaning.
  12. Do not begin tire inflation before the rim is properly seated. It is dangerous to attempt adjustment with a hammer when the tire is being inflated.
  13. Do not place hands or arms between mounted dual tires during inflation. Always use a long air chuck for inflation.
  14. Do not change tires on the road unless wheel chocks and warning devices are used. Flares should be used to warn others whenever a vehicle tire is changed while on a heavily used road.
  15. Changing of tires on split-rim wheels will be performed only by individuals with proper training and using only appropriate equipment.

Chapter 16 - Laboratory Safety

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 2 – General Safety Rules

(Includes any area where hazardous chemicals are used or stored.)


  1. Safety takes precedence over all other considerations.
  2. Do not work alone while performing dangerous chemical procedures. Be sure there is someone in the immediate vicinity you can reach in case of emergency.
  3. Know the location of and how to use eyewash fountains, deluge showers, and fire blankets.
  4. Be sure you understand the hazards involved in a procedure and take all necessary safety precautions before beginning.
  5. Food products (lunches, snacks, juices, condiments, etc.) are not to be stored in laboratory refrigerators. Consumption of food and beverages or smoking is not permitted in laboratory operation areas.
  6. Unsafe facilities, equipment, or behavior should be reported to your supervisor.
  7. Unattended equipment and reactions are major causes of fire, floods, and explosions. Be sure all utility connections are secure. Anticipate hazards that would result from failure of electrical, water, or gas supply. Use hose keepers on water condenser lines.

Personal Protection, Clothing, and Hair

  1. Be sure all containers are properly labeled.
  2. Wear approved eye and face protection suitable for the work at hand. Safety glasses or goggles should be worn at all times while working with chemicals at the counter or laboratory hood. A face shield should be worn when working with potentially eruptive substances.
  3. Custodians, maintenance workers, and visitors must observe safety rules, including eye protection, while in the laboratory.
  4. Wear protective gloves and clothing whenever handling corrosive or other hazardous chemicals.
  5. Wear closed-toe shoes at all times in the lab.
  6. Be sure that moving parts of mechanical apparatus are guarded to prevent hazardous contact.
  7. Maintain your lab area reasonably neat and uncluttered.
  8. Use the fume hood for all operations involving harmful gases or fumes and for flammable or explosive materials. Check the hood to see that it is operating adequately and has been inspected annually.
  9. Use a safety shield or barrier to protect against explosion, implosion, and flash fires when performing reactions with large volume of flammable liquids or unstable material.
  10. Inspect glassware for cracks, sharp edges, and contamination before using. Broken or chipped glassware should be repaired and polished or discarded.
  11. Always use a lubricant (e.g., water, glycerol) when inserting glass tubing into rubber stoppers or grommets. Protect hands in case tubing breaks.
  12. Broken glass should be put in impervious containers that are large enough to completely contain the glass. These containers are to be placed into the building trash dumpsters by laboratory personnel, not by custodians.
  13. Do not handle radioactive isotopes without concurrence of the Radiation Safety Officer.

Chemical Handling

  1. Use a safety pail for transporting dangerous or flammable liquids of more than a small quantity (one pint). Use means to prevent tipping of containers when transporting materials on a cart.
  2. Do not work with large quantities of reactants without special precautions.
  3. Never pour anything back into a reagent bottle.
  4. Use caution when adding anything to a strong acid, caustic, or oxidant. Add slowly.
  5. Never add solids (boiling chips, charcoal, etc.) to a hot liquid.
  6. Never pipette chemicals by mouth. Use pipette filler.
  7. Do not point the mouth of a vessel being heated toward any person, including you.
  8. When working with biohazardous material, guard against infection by skin contact, inhalation of aerosols, and contamination of food and beverages.
  9. Known carcinogens, mutagens, and teratogens should not be used or stored in normal laboratory situations. Such substances require extreme precaution, tight security, limited access, and appropriate safety procedures, and should be used in conjunction with the OSU Carcinogen Safety program.
  10. Never heat a flammable solvent in an open vessel in the presence of sparks or flame. Use only steam, hot water or a grounded heating mantle for heating flammable liquids.
  11. Be sure natural gas lines in the laboratory are shut off at the line valve rather than at the equipment when not in use.
  12. Always locate energized electrical equipment or other devices that may emit sparks or flame at least six inches above the floor.
  13. All electrical apparatus must be properly grounded. Except for dual-insulated equipment, laboratory electrical apparatus should have a three-conductor cord that connects to a grounded electrical outlet.
  14. All electrical wiring for experiments, processes, etc. should be done neatly, and must conform to electrical safety code requirements.
  15. All experiments involving ether and other volatile flammable liquids should be considered fire or explosive hazards.
  16. Strong oxidants such as nitrates, chlorates, perchlorates, and peroxides should be stored in a dry area apart from organic materials.
  17. Perchloric acid digestion must be done in specially designed wash-down laboratory hoods.

Chemical Storage

  1. All chemical substance containers shall be labeled to identify contents. All flammable liquid containers shall be labeled "Flammable" or "Ignitable".
  2. Quantities of flammable solvents should be stored in NFPA-approved, flammable-liquid storage cabinets, or in approved solvent-storage rooms. Not more than 10 gallons of flammable liquids combined shall be stored in the laboratory outside of approved storage mentioned above.
  3. Unsealed containers of peroxide-forming compounds should not be stored in the lab. Organic peroxides may detonate by shock, friction, or heat. Compounds with dangerous tendencies to form peroxides by reaction with oxygen include certain ethers, unsaturated hydrocarbons, aldehydes, and ketones. These peroxide-forming compounds have a limited shelf life and should in no case be stored for longer than one year.
  4. Do not store caustic liquids above eye level.
  5. Do not store glass containers of hazardous liquids on the floor unless they are inside protective containers or pans.
  6. Inventory chemicals periodically and discard old, no-longer-needed substances through the campus hazardous waste disposal program. See Safety Bulletin #30 for more information on chemical storage.

Pressure and Vacuum Systems

  1. Do not perform experiments that develop high pressure or vacuum unless consequence of explosion has been considered and provided for.
  2. Never heat reactants of any kind in a fully closed system without an approved pressure release system.
  3. Never open a pressurized vessel (autoclave, etc.) until pressure has been fully released.
  4. Compressed gas cylinders must be secured in an upright position at all times to prevent them from falling. Do not move or store compressed gas cylinders without the protective caps in place.
  5. Do not interchange regulators designed for specific cylinders.
  6. Flammable gas cylinders must not be stored next to exits or oxygen cylinders.
  7. Don't move bottled gas cylinders by lift truck or hand truck unless approved racks or securing devices are used.
  8. Never use oxygen as a substitute for compressed air. Do not use oil on gauges or regulators for oxidizing gases. Oxygen under pressure reacts violently with oil or grease.
  9. Never use compressed gas from a cylinder without a reduction of pressure through a suitable pressure regulator.
  10. Pressure adjusting screws on regulators shall always be FULLY RELEASED BEFORE the regulator is attached to a cylinder. Always open the valves on cylinders slowly. Do not stand in front of pressure regulator gauge faces when opening cylinder valves.
  11. Do not strike valves with tools, or use excessive force in making connections.
  12. Avoid mixtures of acetylene and oxygen or air prior to use except at a standard torch.
  13. Cylinders not provided with fixed handwheel valves shall have keys or handles provided on valve stems at all times when cylinders are in use.
  14. Cylinders should not be dropped, bumped violently, skidded or rolled horizontally. Compressed gas cylinders are high-pressure vessels and should be handled accordingly.
  15. Do not store cylinders in direct sun, or in boiler or furnace rooms.

Container Handling

  1. Be sure that all containers are properly labeled.
  2. Do not reuse a food container without first removing the original label completely.
  3. Chemical transport containers are not to be used for non-compatible chemicals or for food products at any time.
  4. Never place uncapped vessels of chemicals in a refrigerator, on benches, or in hoods.
  5. Refrigeration of flammable materials must be done in spark-proof or explosion-proof refrigerators.

Chemical Spills and Disposal of Chemical Wastes

  1. Devise a plan to deal with spills before one occurs. POST the plan in the lab. Quickly and thoroughly clean up any liquid or solid chemical spill in the laboratory or area of operations. If any uncertainty exists, seek assistance of supervisor or call Environmental Health & Safety.
  2. Dispose of chemical wastes by approved methods only. Unwanted or no-longer-useful chemicals become chemical wastes. Contact Environmental Health & Safety for waste disposal guidelines.
  3. Reagent bottles should be thoroughly cleaned of any hazardous material prior to disposal

Section 3 – Occupational Health

Chapter 1 - Hearing Conservation Program

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 3 – Occupational Health

pdfIt has been shown that an eight hour time-weighted average exposure to 85 decibels or greater can have unfavorable effects on hearing. The Hearing Conservation Program has been designed to reduce hearing loss at the College of Agricultural Sciences. This program consists of:

  • Hearing Protection
  • Employee Training and Education
  • Annual Audiogram
  • Noise Monitoring
  • Record keeping

Hearing Protection

Person Protectors (approved earmuffs and ear plugs) shall be provided at no cost to the employee. Managers and supervisors must give their employees a choice of at least two different protectors. The supervisor must also provide proper fitting instructions, supervise the correct use and care of all hearing protectors, and ensure that employees wear the hearing protectors. Supervisors and managers can call EH&S’ industrial Hygienist, at (737-2274) for assistance in choosing proper hearing protection and in fit-testing employees.

Employee Training and Education

Workers who are informed about hearing and its loss are likely to use hearing protection. Prior to working in a noisy area, employees should be trained in the basics of this Hearing Conservation Program. Initial training and annual training reminders will be posted on EH&S’ safety training record keeping documentation computer based server. Training programs should be repeated annually for each employee included in the hearing conservation program. EH&S and participating departments will arrange to teach employees about the effects of noise, the advantages and disadvantages of hearing protectors, and the purpose and process of audiometric testing.

Annual Audiogram

An audiologist will perform the audiometric test at no cost to participating employees. The employee’s department is responsible for scheduling the initial exam (before the employee’s job assignment begins) and the annual audiometric exam. Questions regarding audiometric testing should be directed to EH&S.

Noise Monitoring

Monitoring will be performed by an industrial hygienist or a trained person who will determine the amount of noise to which an employee is exposed. Management is required to notify employees exposed at or above an eight-hour average of 85 decibels of the results of monitoring. Monitoring shall be repeated whenever a change in production, process, equipment, or controls, increase noise exposures. However, the department must notify EH&S whenever that change occurs.

Noise monitoring shall also be conducted at least every three years in suspected areas. If employees or supervisors suspect that anyone may be exposed to high noise levels, they are obligated to contact EH&S and request noise monitoring.

Record keeping

As required by law, supervisors and EH&S shall maintain an accurate record of all employee’s noise level testing results for two years and audiometric test results until workers leave the University’s employ. The audiometric test records must include:

  • Name and job classification of the employee
  • Date of the audiogram
  • Examiner’s name
  • Date of the last calibration of the audiometer
  • Employee’s most recent noise monitoring test

Additional questions and comments can be directed to EH&S (737-2273).

Chapter 2 - Respiratory Protection Program

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 3 – Occupational Health


This program has been written to define Oregon State University (OSU) rules regarding the use of respirators for personal protection against airborne contaminants. The ability for a respirator to provide adequate protection is based on proper selection, fit and training. Respirators which are intended for protection against harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors must not be obtained or worn by employees without approval from Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) and in accordance with this program. This program is managed by EH&S and has been established to comply with the Oregon OSHA (OROSHA) regulations for respiratory protection. EH&S maintains a supply of different types of respirators. Respirators should be obtained through EH&S in order to ensure the proper selection and fit. Off campus facilities and other campus groups who have a large number of respirator users may obtain and fit test their own respirators after consultation with EH&S. At least annually, such groups should contact EH&S to discuss the efficacy of the program and any intended changes.

Use of Respirators

Every employee that wears a respirator on the job, whether required to wear one or not, shall have it properly fitted prior to initial use and at all times while performing an operation in a hazardous atmosphere. No employee shall use or be assigned to a task that requires the use of a respirator, unless it has been determined that the employee is physically able to perform under such conditions. This process will begin with the completion of a medical questionnaire available from EH&S. This questionnaire has been developed by physicians at the Corvallis Clinic in accordance with OR-OSHA regulations. The employee returns the questionnaire directly to the Occupational Medicine group at the Corvallis Clinic where it will be reviewed. A physical will be conducted for those employees who indicate potential medical problems on the medical questionnaire. After review, the clinic notifies EH&S of the employee's physical ability to wear a respirator.

A review of the employee's health status must be made annually by returning another questionnaire to the Clinic for review. Off campus sites can use other avenues of medical review that are equivalent. The department is responsible for paying all fees associated with this medical evaluation process.


The useful life of each respirator or cartridge will vary depending on the job duties and actual time in use. Each respirator has limitations; for details, refer to the manufacturer's instructions and recommendations. Air purifying respirators (disposable masks, half or full face cartridge respirators) will not be used in an environment that has less than 19.5% oxygen. To help determine which respirator is best suited for your operation, contact EH&S.

Training of Employees

Each respirator user will be trained on how to use, check, and maintain respirators. This training will be provided by EH&S or by other groups in consultation with EH&S. The training of each respirator wearer will include the following:

  1. The reasons for the need of the respiratory protection.
  2. The nature, extent, and effects of respiratory hazards to which the person may be exposed.
  3. Where applicable, an explanation of why engineering controls are not being applied or are not adequate and of what effort is being made to reduce or eliminate the need for respirators.
  4. An explanation of why a particular type of respirator has been selected for a specific respiratory hazard.
  5. An explanation of the operation, and the capabilities and limitations, of the respirator selected.
  6. Instruction in inspecting, donning, checking the fit of, and wearing the respirator.
  7. An opportunity for each respiratory wearer to handle the respirator and to wear the respirator in both a safe atmosphere and a test atmosphere for an adequate period of time to ensure that the wearer is familiar with the operational characteristics of the respirator.
  8. An explanation of how maintenance and storage of the respirator is carried out.
  9. Instructions in how to recognize and cope with emergency situations.
  10. Instructions as needed for special respirator use.
  11. Regulations concerning respirator use.

A record will be kept of those employees who have been trained. Each user must understand and be able to apply the contents of this respirator program in the daily use, care, and safekeeping of the respirators.

Fitting of Respirators

Proper fitting of respirators is essential for employees to receive the protection for which the respirator is designed. Air, which passes around the face-piece of the respirator, rather than through it, is not filtered air. In order to ensure a good face seal, follow the manufacturer's fitting instructions and rules below:

  1. The respirator and all straps should be in place and worn in the appropriate position. To adjust head bands, pull the free end tight until a comfortable and effective fit is obtained.
  2. To adjust the face-piece properly, position chin firmly in the chin cup and manually shift rubber mask until the most comfortable position is located. Make final adjustments on the headband and do not break the nasal seal. Modifications to the respirator or straps will not be made.
  3. BEARDS are not allowed. Respirators should not be worn when projections under the face piece prevent a good face seal. Note: Such conditions may be a growth of beard, sideburns, temple pieces on glasses, or a skull cap that projects under the face piece.
  4. Respirators should not be worn if scars, hollow temples, excessively protruding cheekbones, deep creases in facial skin, the absence of teeth or dentures, or unusual facial configurations prevent a good face seal.
  5. Each day, to ensure proper protection, the wearer of a respirator should check the seal of the face-piece by conducting both a positive and negative pressure test. Positive and negative pressure test will be conducted every time the respirator is put on and prior to each entry into a hazardous atmosphere.
    1. Positive Pressure Test
      • Close off exhalation valve with palm.
      • Exhale gently.
      • A small build-up of positive pressure, with no outward leaks, indicates a good face-piece fit.
      • If air leakage is detected, reposition the respirator on the face, readjust the tension of the head bands, or try a different size respirator.
      • Repeat the test until a satisfactory seal has been achieved.
    2. Negative Pressure Test
      • Cover aid inlets with palms (if a disposable, cover the entire filtering surface)
      • Gently breathe in so that face-piece collapses slightly.
      • Hold breath for 10 seconds.
      • If respirator remains slightly collapsed and no inward leaks are felt, the face-piece fits tight enough.
      • If air leakage is detected, reposition the respirator on the face, readjust the tension of the head bands, or try a different size respirator.
      • Repeat the test until a satisfactory seal has been achieved.

Initial Required Fit Test

A more elaborate fit test will be conducted by EH&S, or other approved groups as outlined in this document, for each employee when a new type of respirator is issued. The fitted respirator will be tested using the appropriate qualitative fit test. For example:

  1. Isoamyl Acetate Test (banana oil) can be used to check respirator fit when using organic vapor respirators by determining if the wearer can detect the "banana oil" odor.
  2. Irritant Fume Test can be used with particulate respirators to ensure proper fit.
  3. 3M Saccharin Test can be used to check disposable or half mask dust and mist respirators.

Maintenance of Respirators

Respirators need to be maintained to ensure effectiveness and to prevent chemical and bacterial contamination. Proper maintenance of the respirator is the responsibility of each employee.

  • Respirators issued for the exclusive use of one worker should be cleaned after each day's work, or more often if necessary.
  • Respirators used by more than one worker should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected after each use. Those respirators that are stored for emergency use should be thoroughly inspected at least once a month and after each use by the individual responsible for these respirators.

Respirator cleaning and disinfecting should be done by carrying out the following procedures:

  1. Remove all covering assemblies before cleaning and disinfecting:
    1. Filters, cartridges, canisters
    2. Speaking diaphragms
    3. Demand and pressure-demand valve assemblies
    4. Head band
    5. Any other components recommended by the respirator manufacturer
  2. Wash respirator and appropriate covering assemblies as recommended by the manufacturer, in warm cleaner and disinfectant solution (49oC/120oF max. temp.). A soft cloth may be used to help remove dirt or other foreign material. A recommended disinfecting solution can be made from ordinary household bleach diluted 1:10 with clear water. A two-minute immersion will disinfect adequately.
  3. Rinse respirator and appropriate covering assemblies in clean, warm water (49oC/120oF max. temp.).
  4. Shake respirator as needed to remove water residues and any foreign materials that may still remain.
  5. Inspect parts and replace any parts found defective. Set respirator aside to air dry.
  6. When dry, reassemble respirator and attach new filters, cartridges or canisters if necessary.
  7. Visually inspect and, where possible, test parts and respirator assemblies for proper function.
  8. After respirator has been cleaned, dried, and inspected it should be stored in a sealed, clean, sanitary container (zip-lock bag), away from any source of contaminants. Respirators should not be hung on nails. The face-piece, inhalation and exhalation valves must be in a normal position so as to prevent the abnormal "set" of elastomer parts during storage.

Respirator Program Evaluation

Periodic evaluation of the effectiveness of the respirator program is essential to ensure that persons are being provided with adequate respiratory protection. The effectiveness of the respirator program should be evaluated at least annually by supervisors and EH&S. Corrective action should be taken to correct defects found in the program. Supervisors will monitor the effectiveness of this program by:

  • Frequent unscheduled observations of employee activities throughout the work area to confirm proper respirator use and acceptance by employees.
  • Observation of and discussion with new employees to confirm proper training has been carried out.

Chapter 3 - Health Hazards In Agriculture

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 3 – Occupational Health

pdfPerhaps more than any other occupational group, agricultural workers are exposed to a tremendous variety of environmental hazards that are potentially harmful to their health and well-being. Farmers and farm workers suffer from increased rates of respiratory diseases, noise-induced hearing loss, skin disorders, certain cancers, chemical toxicity, and heat-related illnesses. There are precautions that can be taken to minimize or eliminate these potential hazards.

Farm Noise

Noise from farm tools and machinery can cause permanent hearing loss. Hearing loss may be temporary at first, but repeated exposure will lead to permanent damage. The damage can occur gradually over a number of years and remain unnoticed until it is too late. Some noises, such as gunshots, are so loud they can cause immediate permanent damage.

The permissible noise exposure standard for an eight hour day is 90 dB(A). The exposure standard for peak noise - for example gunshot - is 140 dB.

Spot the hazard

Some early warning signs of hearing loss include:

  • Ringing in the ears after work;
  • Difficulty understanding a normal conversation;
  • Turning up the volume on radio or television when others appear to hear adequately;
  • Failing to hear background noises, such as a ringing telephone or doorbell.

Typical farm noises that can damage hearing include:

  • Tractor (95-100dB(A))
  • Header (88-90dB(A))
  • Orchard sprayer (85-100dB(A))
  • Angle grinder (95-105dB(A))
  • Bench grinder (90-95dB(A))
  • Chainsaw (105-120dB(A))
  • Pig shed at feed time (95-105dB(A))
  • Shotgun (over 140 dB(lin)).

Assess the risk

If you have to shout above noise to be heard by someone a meter away, your hearing could be at risk. If noise cannot be reduced or removed at its source, and if there is no other way to separate people from damaging noise exposure, protective hearing equipment must be worn. Some farmers employ a noise consultant to take noise readings, assess hearing risks and recommend preventive measures.

Make the changes

You can reduce noise at its source by:

  • Purchasing quieter machinery and equipment;
  • Modifying equipment to reduce noise;
  • Keeping machinery well maintained;
  • If practicable, running machinery at lower revs.

You can protect people from loud noise exposure by:

  • Limiting the time workers spend in a noisy environment.
  • Isolating work areas from noisy machinery using distance or insulation;
  • Scheduling noisy work when fewer workers are around;
  • Using job rotation to alternate noisy jobs with quiet ones.

Protective equipment

  • Where noise exposure cannot be reduced, hearing protection should be worn, e.g. on open tractors, when shooting, or when using a chainsaw.
  • Try on ear muffs before buying, to ensure comfort and a sound-proof fit.
  • The higher the SLC 80 (sound level conversion) figure for hearing protection, the higher the protection.
  • Use lower SLC 80 muffs for moderately noisy jobs - a high rating might mask out important danger warning sounds.
  • Ear plugs may be more comfortable for some farmers, but must be inserted with clean hands. Re-usable plugs must be cleaned regularly. Cotton wool is not sufficient.
  • Clean and maintain hearing protectors. Replace worn or damaged parts. Keep protectors near the area of noisy activity, e.g. in the tractor cab.
  • Wear a combination of ear muffs and ear plugs when shooting.


Once hearing is gone, it is gone forever, and hearing aids are of little help. They can make speech louder, but they cannot make it clearer.

Heat Stress

Heat stress occurs when the body builds up more heat than it can handle. High temperatures, high humidity, sunlight, and heavy workloads increase the likelihood of heat stress. Use fans, ventilation systems, and shade whenever possible. A work area sometimes can be shaded by a tarp or canopy. Drink plenty of water before, during, and after work, and consider wearing cooling vests, which are garments with ice or frozen gel inserts.

Allow time to adjust to the heat and workload. People who are used to working in the heat are less likely to suffer heat stress. To become adjusted, do about 2 hours of light work per day in the heat for several days in a row; then, gradually increase the work period and workload for the next several days. An adjustment period of at least 7 days is recommended. If the warm weather occurs gradually, workers may adjust naturally.

Good health has long been acknowledged as one of the most critical elements to quality of life. The health of farm workers is a vital resource to protect. Following recommended precautionary measures to protect your health can go a long way to enhancing your quality of life.

Stress on the Farm

What is Stress?

Stress is a person's reaction to something considered a challenge or a threat. It is the emotional strain and pressure exerted on mental and physical being by oneself and others. When under stress, the body begins to "gear up" for action. This makes a person stronger and more alert, but it also takes more energy.

How is Stress Harmful?


When "geared up" under stress, the body begins to do more of some things and less of others. Blood circulation increases, but digestion slows down or even stops. This could lead to major health problems, such as heart disease and ulcers. Other less severe but serious health problems include sleeplessness, headaches, and poor digestion.

Relationships With Other People

Under stress, most people become so wrapped up in their own problems that they forget about everyone else. At the same time, they begin to take out their feelings on family members and friends. Stress quickly becomes a problem for the entire family--not just for the individual.

Efficiency in the Workplace

For a short time, stress may make someone a better, more efficient worker. But over the long haul, a person will wear down, becoming physically weaker and tiring more easily. A lack of concentration may result in poor management decisions. This can be especially dangerous when operating machinery.

More Stress

Stress will have a snowball effect. All the problems it causes with personal health, family, and work will become new troubles. Without learning how to control it, stress can become an endless cycle.

Steps to Take to Control Stress

  1. Take a good look at yourself. How do you feel--both physically and mentally?
  2. Make a list of things that cause stress in your life.
  3. Think about how serious a problem stress is for you. Do you feel under constant stress, or does it come and go? Think about how stress hurts you. How has it affected your health and work? How has it changed the way you treat other people?
  4. Finally, try to decide if you are under more stress now than you were a year or two ago. If stress has increased, have the pressures changed or your attitude toward them?

Learn How to Manage Stress

  1. Talking about problems is a good way to relieve stress. Choose someone you can be honest with, and then share your problems and discuss solutions with them.
  2. Learn how to recognize stressors. These might be a tightening of the neck and shoulders, stomach problems, or changes in behavior or relationships. The body is equipped with a complex system that give warning signs when the stress level is too high.
  3. Look at the list of things that cause you stress and think about how serious each of them really is. Pick out things that no one can control, such as prices and the weather. Then, when feeling stressed, evaluate the cause. Is it something minor or something you have no ability to control?
  4. When dealing with a major problem, try to break it down into smaller parts. If the barn needs repair, pick out one job and concentrate on getting it done. Once that task is completed, go on to the next one.
  5. Schedule the time realistically. Do not try and squeeze more work into a day than can be completed.
  6. Take occasional short breaks from work. A few minutes will provide a refreshing start at the job.
  7. Learn how to relax. Sit back in a chair and concentrate on relaxing tense muscles.
  8. Develop other interests that will help you forget about your problems for a while.
  9. Consider outside help, such as counseling or group clinics.

Take Care of Your Self

Fight stress by taking care of yourself. Here are some tips from the American Heart Association:

  1. Exercise. Regular physical activity makes a person feel better and eases tension at the same time.
  2. Eat well. A balanced diet is good for physical and mental health. Food is fuel for the body. The better the input, the better the output.
  3. Sleep and rest. Make sure to get enough sleep and rest to refresh the mind and body.
  4. Balance work and play. Besides being just plain fun, recreation can help a person enjoy work more.
  5. Learn to accept the things you cannot change. Look for the best in people and situations. Remember, no one is perfect. Realize that fiscal and time pressure challenges due to weather, crop prices, and market demand are beyond your control.

General Health for Farm Workers

Know Your Physical Limits

Exceeding personal limitations is a factor in many farm accidents. Working in extreme heat or cold or attempting jobs beyond your physical capabilities elevates accident or illness risk.

Be ready for a safe day. This includes dressing right for the weather and job, getting the proper nourishment and adequate rest. Take work breaks to fight fatigue and extend your energy. Stop when you've had enough.

If it will be a struggle to lift or carry something, get help. Be sure you have the necessary competence (strength, skill and staying power) required by the job or activity to do it well and safely. Find the least taxing way to do things. Use motor power rather than muscle power when possible. Plan your work to make maximum use of your available energy.

Consider age and state of health in deciding what and how much you can do safely. Be willing to reassign jobs and activities that can no longer be done safely because of age or health problems. Exercise regularly for improved cardiovascular fitness, muscle tone, and to stay agile.

Chapter 4 - Ergonomic Farming

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 3 – Occupational Health

pdfMusculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs)

What are MSDs?

MSDs are injuries and illnesses that affect muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments, joints or spinal discs. Your doctor might tell you that you have one of the following common MSDs:

Carpal tunnel syndrome
Trigger finger
Tension neck syndrome
Rotator cuff syndrome
Raynaud's phenomenon
Low back pain
De Quervain's disease
Carpet layers' knee
Hand-arm Vibration Syndrome

What causes MSDs?

Workplace MSDs are caused by exposure to the following risk factors:

Repetition. Doing the same motions over and over again places stress on the muscles and tendons. The severity of risk depends on how often the action is repeated, the speed of the movement, the number of muscles involved and the required force.

Forceful Exertions. Force is the amount of physical effort required to perform a task (such as heavy lifting) or to maintain control of equipment or tools. The amount of force depends on the type of grip, the weight of an object, body posture, the type of activity and the duration of the task.

Awkward Postures. Posture is the position your body is in and affects muscle groups that are involved in physical activity. Awkward postures include repeated or prolonged reaching, twisting, bending, kneeling, squatting, working overhead with your hands or arms, or holding fixed positions.

Contact stress. Pressing the body against a hard or sharp edge can result in placing too much pressure on nerves, tendons and blood vessels. For example, using the palm of your hand as a hammer can increase your risk of suffering an MSD.

Vibration. Operating vibrating tools such as sanders, grinders, chippers, routers, drills and other saws can lead to nerve damage.

Chapter 5 - Bloodborne Pathogens Exposure Control


Exposure to bloodborne pathogens may be encountered in teaching and research activities and the functions that support these activities. Recognizing that the risk of infection from exposure to bloodborne pathogens is real and to ensure the protection of students and staff, the following program and procedures are to be adopted and followed by all departments.

This Exposure Control Plan is intended to bring Oregon State University into compliance with the OR-OSHA regulations. This plan will serve as the written exposure control plan for OSU. Individual departments will provide supplemental information, as necessary, to act as addenda to this written program.

Classroom and Instructional Use

Students may be exposed to human blood or other potentially infectious material in classrooms, teaching laboratories, or instructional activity such as graduate research. Instructors are required to provide training to their students and to follow the work practices listed in this Exposure Control Plan, including the use of appropriate protective equipment, if the students are going to work with human blood or other potentially infectious material. Instructors must also follow the post-exposure evaluation procedures listed in this chapter if a student reports an exposure incident in a classroom, teaching laboratory, or other instructional activity.

The following exceptions to this Exposure Control Plan will apply to students.

  1. Annual training will not be required.
  2. Training records will not be required.
  3. The cost of required personal protective equipment may be charged to the student.
  4. Hepatitis B vaccine will not be offered to students unless there is a reasonable expectation that they will experience an exposure incident.

The cost of the hepatitis B vaccine series may be charged to the student.

Review and Approval

Classroom Use

Department Review. The use of human materials in the classroom must be approved. Instructors must submit to their department heads a written explanation of the intended use of a human material in a classroom exercise. This proposal must include the following information.

  1. Type of material to be used.
  2. Purpose of the use.
  3. Description of how the procedures in the Exposure Control Plan will be followed.

The proposal will then be reviewed for approval by the department head. It is recommended that the proposal also be reviewed by the department faculty or the department curriculum committee. This approval is only required once and will apply to all instructors who teach the class and follow the procedures indicated in the proposal. Review and approval will only be required again if the procedures are changed.

When approved by the department head, a copy of the proposal is sent to Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) for review and record maintenance.

Research or Instructional Use

Review and approval by the department head is required for any research or instructional work with HIV or HBV. Extensive safety precautions must be taken when working with these materials. Therefore, any proposal for work with HIV or HBV must also be sent to EH&S for review.

IRB Review. All research work with human blood or other potentially infectious materials must be reviewed and approved by the OSU Institutional Review Board for the Protection of Human Subjects (IRB). Research proposals must be submitted to the Research Office for this review.


Section 4 – Agricultural Safety Rules

Chapter 1 – Farm Machinery and Equipment

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 4 - Agricultural Safety Rules

Operating a Tractorpdf

Tractors are the main cause of accidental deaths on farms. Over the years, many farmers, farm workers and others living on or visiting farms, have been killed or seriously injured falling from moving tractors, being run over by tractors, or being crushed when a tractor rolls sideways or backwards.

Spot the hazard

Regularly check for hazards relating to tractors, attached implements and field conditions. Hazard areas could include mechanical parts, operator training, other people, work procedures, unsafe jacking, climatic conditions, chemicals used, uneven terrain, and any other potential causes of an injury or a hazardous incident. Keep a record to ensure identified hazards are assessed and controlled.

Assess the risk

Once a potential hazard has been identified, assess the likelihood of an injury or hazardous incident occurring. For example, risk to children playing near a tractor will vary, depending on what the tractor operator is doing, how close they are to the tractor and whether the operator knows they are there. Consider ways of minimizing risk.

Make the changes

  • Read and follow safety procedures in the manufacturer's manual.
  • Ensure an approved cab or rollover protective structure (ROPS) is fitted.
  • Fit and use a seatbelt on tractors with ROPS.
  • If there is a risk from falling objects, fit a fall-on protective structure (FOPS).
  • To reduce risk of back strain, fit a seat with side restraints and a backrest.
  • Wear hearing protection, and remember, not all tractor cabs are sound proof.
  • Keep children away from tractors and machinery.
  • Remove starter keys when tractors are not in use.
  • Have an up-to-date maintenance schedule.
  • Follow safe maintenance and jacking procedures. (See Tractor Maintenance.)
  • Ensure the operator is properly trained for each type of tractor work.
  • Always mount and dismount on a tractor's left side - to avoid controls.
  • Adjust the seat so all controls are safely and comfortably reached.
  • Keep all guards in place, including the power take-off (PTO).
  • Operate the self-starter from the operator position only.
  • Never carry passengers.

When operating a tractor

  • Drive at speeds slow enough to retain control over unexpected events.
  • Reduce speed before turning or applying brakes.
  • Watch out for ditches, logs, rocks, depressions and embankments.
  • On steep slopes, without a trailed implement, reverse up for greater safety.
  • Engage the clutch gently at all times, especially when going uphill or towing.
  • Use as wide a wheel track as possible on hillsides and sloping ground.
  • Descend slopes cautiously in low gear, using the motor as a brake.
  • Never mount or dismount from a moving tractor.
  • Ensure the park brake is on and operating effectively before dismounting.
  • Take short breaks regularly when working long hours.

When towing implements

  • Fit attachments according to the manufacturer's instructions.
  • Always attach implements to the draw bar or the mounting points provided by the manufacturer.
  • Never alter, modify or raise the height of the draw bar unless provided for by the manufacturer.
  • Regularly check safety pins on towed lift-wing implements, to ensure they are not worn.
  • Ensure all guards on towed implements are in place before operating.
  • Never hitch above the centerline of the rear axle, around the axle housing or to the top link pin.
  • Never adjust or work on implements while they are in motion.
  • Never attach implements unless the PTO shaft is guarded.
  • When parking, always lower the three-point linkage and towed implement.

To avoid strain injury

  • Adjust the tractor seat for back support and comfort.
  • When buying a tractor, ensure seating is safe and comfortable.
  • Check seat height, seat depth, backrest height and angle, fore and aft movement, seat tilt, firm padding, partial pivoting (if you have to spend long periods looking behind you), and vibration-absorbing suspension.
  • Dismount every hour or so, and spend 5 or 10 minutes doing something active.
  • Plan for your next tractor to include suitably low steps, handgrips, adequate doorway and cab space, and a safe mounting platform.
  • Dismount by climbing down - not jumping down - and use each provided foot and handhold.

Tractor Maintenance

People have been killed and seriously injured doing maintenance and repairs to farm tractors. Major hazards can occur when tractors are jacked and wheels are removed without safe working procedures. These risks are magnified on soil. Regular workshop maintenance of farm tractors and trailed implements can prevent hazardous incidents in the field.

Spot the hazard

When planning tractor maintenance, check the right equipment is available for safe jacking, removal of wheels and other tasks. People doing the job should be experienced, and there should be agreed safe procedures. Heavy lifting and carrying can cause strain injuries. Children should be kept away from tractor workshops. Field repairs present specific injury risks.

Assess the risk

The greater the risk of an injury or a dangerous incident occurring, the more urgent the need for changes to be made to minimize or eliminate the risk.

Make the changes

Here are some ways of improving tractor maintenance safety.

  • Routinely adjust brakes, clutches and drives, according to the manual.
  • Ensure steering, exhaust system and brakes are in top condition.
  • Stop the motor before re-fuelling, servicing or greasing and, if possible, wait until the engine is cold before re-fuelling.
  • Never remove or replace belts while pulleys are under power.
  • Keep steps and working platforms free of grease and oil to avoid slips and falls.
  • If the engine overheats, allow time for it to cool off before removing the radiator cap.

When jacking a tractor

  • Jack on a flat surface, ideally a concrete floor.
  • Avoid working alone. Ask somebody with training and experience to help.
  • Refer to the manufacturer's manual on safe jacking, or seek professional advice.
  • Where jacking points are not identifiable, jack from the lowest possible point.
  • Use jacks that comply with applicable standards.
  • Use vehicle stands that comply with applicable standards, and are designed for the load to be suspended.

Blocks and chocks

  • Ensure wooden blocks for jacking are of hardwood, e.g. jarrah or karri, with a surface area that will support the tractor's weight on soft soils.
  • Chock all wheels that will remain on the ground, using big wooden chocks at the front and rear of each wheel. Don't use rocks; they're too unstable.
  • Chock all wheels on articulated vehicles to stop them twisting sideways during jacking.
  • Before jacking, apply brakes, place in gear - or automatic park - and switch ignition off.
  • Stay clear of the tractor while operating the jack.

When removing wheels

  • Loosen wheel nuts before the wheel is off the ground, to avoid any movement that could dislodge the tractor.
  • Before removing a tractor tire from a rim, release all water and air pressure.
  • To avoid serious injuries, it is recommended that work performed on split rims be done by the professional. Therefore, farm workers should not work on split rims.
  • Never jack more than one wheel off the ground at a time in the field.
  • If both rear wheels have to be removed, work on a flat, level concrete floor, in the workshop.
  • When removing rear wheels, ensure the front wheels are immobilized by fixing wedges between axle and body.

Using Grain Harvesting Equipment Safely

Combine Operator Safety

Good safety habits are vital for anyone who operates a combine, corn picker or other grain-harvesting machine. Failure to observe safety practices can be fatal!

However, constant alertness is also necessary to prevent machinery accidents--accidents that often happen in spite of machinery that is designed for safety.

Machinery operators are not in top physical or emotional condition when they are tired, ill, worried, angry, or have their minds on something else. Accidents are most likely to happen under these conditions.

The combine operator is responsible not only for his safety but also for the safety of others who may be working on or just be near the machine. The operator must be aware of hazards and remain alert to situations that are potentially dangerous. This includes pre-operational checks, starting, transporting, towing, operating, field repair and maintenance and stopping the combine.


  1. Hand Signals. A set of hand signals has been endorsed by several safety institutions. Since spoken instructions are very difficult to hear over the sounds of a combine, knowledge of hand signals can be extremely helpful to the operator when maneuvering a combine, especially in tight places.
  2. Safety Before Starting.
    1. Before attempting to operate a combine, study the operator's manual. It has information on general safety rules, plus specific safety recommendations for the particular machine. The more you know about the combine, the better prepared you will be to safely operator it.
    2. The exhaust fumes from a gasoline or diesel engine are very poisonous. If the combine is run inside a building, be sure to open the doors to provide good ventilation.
    3. Always clean the combine before starting. Trash around the exhaust system can cause fires. Oil, grease or mud on ladders or the platform can cause serious falls. If the combine is equipped with a cab, clean the glass to provide maximum visibility.
    4. Check the tire pressure each day. Under-inflation can cause buckling of the sidewall, which can cause dangerous tire failure. Over-inflated tire have a great deal of "bounce" and cause upsets more readily that tires with correct pressure.
    5. Check the brakes once a week. With hydraulic brakes, make sure that the master cylinder is full of fluid and that no air is present in the lines. Adjust the pedal free travel, if necessary, so that the brakes are engaged with the pedals an equal distance from the floor of the platform. Check the operator's manual for specific instructions.
    6. Check the threshing cylinder-rocking bar to see it is clear of the cylinder.
    7. Make sure that all shields and covers are in place and fastened securely.
    8. Remove or stow all service equipment.
    9. Always use the handrails and ladders provided on the combine for safe mounting and dismounting.
    10. Be sure that all PTO covers, safety stands and shields are on the machine before taking it to the field.
  3. Starting the Combine.
    1. Before mounting the combine, make sure that everyone is clear of the machine. Do not allow anyone to ride with you, unless combine is equipped with a passenger seat.
    2. Before starting the combine:
      • Disengage header drive.
      • Disengage separator drive
      • Place gearshift in neutral
      • Depress clutch pedal
    3. Be careful when using diesel starting fluid. It is extremely flammable.
    4. If it is necessary to use jumper cables to start the combine, be careful to avoid sparks around the battery. Hydrogen gas escaping from the battery can explode. Follow the operator's manual instructions for using jumper cables.
  4. Transporting the Combine.
    1. Always keep your mind on the dangers of driving the combine on public roads. Beside maintaining control of the machine, you must watch for obstacles on the road, pedestrians and traffic.
    2. High speed is the leading cause of accidents. Never drive faster that the road conditions allow for safe operation. Anticipate dangers and slow down to avoid accidents.
    3. Make sure you are familiar with local traffic laws. Check the safety flashers and small moving vehicle (SMV) emblems to be sure they are clean and visible.
    4. Always lock the brake pedals together. If the combine is not equipped with locking mechanism, be sure to depress both pedals at the same time evenly. Applying only one brake, or applying one harder than the other can cause the combine to swerve and perhaps tip over.
    5. Be careful when applying brakes when a header is attached to the combine. The added weight up front can cause the combine to tip forward if the brakes are applied abruptly. Always drive slow enough to allow controlled application of brakes at all times.
    6. Always check headlights and safety flashers to make sure they are properly adjusted and in working order.
    7. Put the unloading auger in the transport position. Be certain it is not blocking a safety flasher or SMV emblem.
    8. On self-propelled combines, never use the header safety support when transporting the machine. Raise the header enough for safe ground clearance, but not high enough to reduce visibility.
    9. On pull-type combines, always use header support when transporting. Towing at transport speeds can be hazardous because of side forces on the tractor when stopping too quickly. Side forces from slowing a combine too quickly may cause a tractor to skid, especially on loose gravel. Slowing down while turning can cause jack-knifing. Slow down before the corner so the towed combine doesn't get out of control.
    10. Watch for low power or telephone lines, bridges, buildings and any other obstacles, to make sure you can pass under them safely. Always keep as far to the right of the roadway as possible. Keep a careful watch to see that you have safe clearance on both sides.
    11. Always sit down when traveling at high speeds or going over rough terrain.
    12. Be careful when making turns. Make sure that the rear of the combine will clear obstacles when it swings around. Avoid sharp turns. Turning too sharply at high speed can cause the machine to turn over.
    13. Because the wheels for steering are in the back, self-propelled machines often fishtail when turned too quickly at transport speeds. Steering to the right will whip the rear to the left, and vice versa. Steering suddenly to the right when meeting oncoming traffic causes the back of the combine to swing out into the path of on coming traffic.
    14. Slowing or braking too rapidly could cause loss of some steering control (weight on rear wheels). This is most noticeable when driving with a corn head or some other heavy header raised high. In this case, most of the weight will be on the drive wheels. Install rear wheel weights. Keep header as low as possible. Use the variable speed drive or engine throttle to slow the machine. Reduce speed before you need to apply brakes and always lock brake pedals together.
    15. Never depress the clutch pedal or take the combine out of gear to coast down hill. When the combine is moving it is impossible to shift the transmission back in gear. Always maintain complete control of the combine. The same applies to tractors that are towing pull-type combines.
  5. Towing the combine.
    1. If the combine must be transported over long distances, it is safer to haul it on a large truck or a special low trailer.
    2. Never tow the combine at speeds higher than 20 mph.
    3. Always keep the transmission in neutral or in the "tow" position, if the combine is so equipped.
    4. Never tow a combine equipped with hydrostatic drive. Towing can cause damage to the drive unit. Instead, haul the combine.
  6. Operating the combine.
    1. Never operate the combine if you are ill or sleepy. Operating safety depends on alert, efficient handling of the combine.
    2. Wear safety glasses at all times.
    3. Wear clothing that fits snugly to avoid catching clothing in moving parts.
    4. Never let anyone ride on the combine unless it is equipped with a passenger seat. A rider's clothing may become entangled in moving parts, or he may be thrown off the machine.
    5. Before starting to harvest a field, check it carefully for ditches, fences or other obstacles. Be aware of weather conditions, which present safety hazards.
    6. Be especially careful when operating on hillsides. Avoid sharp turns that could tip the combine over. Beware of ditches or obstacles--they are doubly dangerous on slopes.
    7. If grain tank extensions are used, remember that the added weight may make the combine top heavy and more subject to upsets.
    8. Never travel over 10 mph (16 km/h) with a full grain tank. The added weight makes the combine more difficult to maneuver and easier to upset.
    9. Always sit down when traveling over rough terrain. A sharp jolt can throw you from the platform or away from he controls.
    10. Hillside combines are equipped with automatic or manual leveling devices. Hydraulic cylinders act to level these combines on steep slopes. These machines are equipped with a warning signal that indicates when the leveling system has reached its limit. Be especially careful after the device activates.
    11. When using the steering brakes, always turn the steering wheel before applying the steering brakes. Failure to do so can cause the combine to swerve and turn dangerously.
  7. Field repair and maintenance safety.
    1. Always keep the machine clean. Field trash around the exhaust system can cause fires. Mud, grease or oil on the operator's platform or ladders can cause falls.
    2. Before lubricating or adjusting the combine, disengage all drives and stop the engine. Never leave the operator's platform with the engine running.
    3. Make sure that the header drive and separator drive are disengaged before attempting to clean the combine. Never try to unclog the machine with a stick or pole with the machine is running. The stalk rolls on a corn head can pull a 12 foot (3.6 cm) stick through in one second--shorter sticks or stalks even faster--before you can let go.
    4. On a pull-type combines, always disengage the PTO and turn off the tractor before attempting to unclog, adjust or lubricate the machine.
    5. Always stop the machine before opening the inspection doors.
    6. Keep all shields in place. After working on the combine, make sure the shields are fastened securely.
    7. When operating in very dusty or noisy locations, wear goggles and ear plugs to insure safe visibility and prevent hearing loss. Never wear loose clothing that can become entangled in moving parts.
    8. Stay clear of moving parts at all times.
    9. Keep belts and chains properly adjust and aligned.
    10. Don't rely on the hydraulic system for support when working under the machine header. Always use the stops or supports provided on the machine. If no safety device is provided, block the header securely.
    11. When adjusting the wheel spacing, make certain the machine is blocked. Never rely on jacks alone for support.
    12. Always support the reel arm securely when adjustments are being made.
    13. Be careful when removing heavy parts. Make certain they are held firmly to avoid dropping them. Have someone help you with heavy jobs.
    14. When operating in dry fields. Install a spark arresting muffler to prevent fire.
    15. Avoid sparks or open flames when working the battery. Hydrogen gas escaping from the battery may explode.
    16. When possible always refuel the combine outside the field. Let the engine cool before attempting to refuel and never smoke around fuels.
    17. Allow the system to cool and remove the radiator cap slowly, turning it until pressure escapes through the overflow pipe. Make sure all pressure is relieved before removing the cap.
    18. Stay clear of the exhaust system until it cools.
    19. High-pressure fluid leaks in the hydraulic or diesel fuel system are very dangerous. The leaks can be invisible and still have enough pressure to penetrate the skin. When checking for leaks, use a piece of cardboard. If an injury does occur, seek medical aid immediately.
    20. Always carry a first aid kit and fire extinguisher on the combine.
  8. Stopping the combine safely.

To make sure drive units do not cause injury when the machine is started again, do the following when stopping the combine.

  1. Disengage header drive
  2. Disengage separator drive
  3. Place gearshift lever in neutral
  4. Lower header
  5. Apply parking brake
  6. Remove ignition key to prevent tampering or accidental starting.

REMEMBER: The hydraulic drive unit is not an effective parking brake.
Source: Fundamentals of Machine Operation - Combines, Deere & Co.

Baling Hay

Large hay bales, some weighing up to 800 kg, have killed or seriously injured many farm workers. Bales, both round and rectangular, can fall on tractor and forklift operators, topple off stacks and vehicles on workers or bystanders, and collapse when stacks fail.

Spot the hazard

Look for hazards relating to:


  • Children playing near hay balers, carriers and stackers.
  • Training of operators handling tractors, front-end loaders or forklifts.
  • Use of two-poster tractor ROPS for baling - they offer no operator protection from bales falling back off forks or bale-loading frames. Tractors with cabs, FOPS (fall on protective structure) or four-poster ROPS are safer.
  • Makeshift or poorly fitting bale-loading attachments on tractors and forklifts.
  • Carrying bales too high off the ground.
  • Insufficient counterbalance on tractor or forklift vehicle.
  • Hydraulic control valve should be specific to the front-end loader attachment.

Baler operation:

  • Baler properly connected to the tractor.
  • Adequate safety guards fitted.
  • Nobody allowed to ride on the baler.
  • Prevent others getting too close to the baler.
  • Build-up of loose, combustible material in the baler.
  • Fire extinguisher fitted to the machine.
  • Disengage PTO and apply fly wheel brake prior to making baler adjustments.
  • Stop engine and apply fly wheel brake before repairs or "stringing up" the baler.
  • Extra care and attention when reversing or turning the machine,
  • working at night,
  • loading onto a truck, and unloading.


  • Loading and stacking on uneven ground.
  • Stacks under or near overhead powerlines
  • Stacks of round bales inadequately chocked and border posted.
  • Damaged bales at base of stack – e.g., from vehicles, cattle or rodents.
  • Unstable heights and loose stacking.
  • Bales stacked higher than safe operating height of farm tractor or forklift.
  • Children playing on stacked bales, particularly during stacking or unstacking.
  • Lack of training, experience and protection for people doing hay baling, stacking and loading.
  • Handling more bales than safe for the loader.


  • Sturdiness of trailers carrying heavy loads of bales.
  • Restraining frames back and front of trailer.
  • Hooks fitted so ropes can be used to secure load.
  • Roads too close to or below powerlines.
  • Rough terrain causing bales to become unstable.
  • Safe speeds at all times.
  • People riding on loaded hay trailers - highly dangerous.

Assess the risk

Check each hazard that has been spotted to assess:

  • Likelihood - how likely is this hazard to injure someone? and
  • Severity - how severe would that injury be?

List all the hay baling and stacking hazards spotted, and number them in order of priority, so that those most likely to cause injury or harm can be tackled first.

Because most large hay bales can kill or seriously injure anyone they fall or roll on, any risk of a hazardous incident should be assessed as requiring urgent attention. And as children are the most vulnerable, consider child injury risks top priority.

Make the changes


  • Keep children away from hay baling and stacking operations.
  • Make sure operators and handlers are properly trained and physically capable of tasks.
  • Consider fall-arrest protection for people working at heights.
  • Use tractors with four-poster ROPS, FOPS or cabs for protection against falling bales.
  • Replace risky attachments with manufacturer approved attachments.
  • Ensure loader or forklift operators transport bales close to the ground.
  • Avoid sharp turns and unsafe speeds.
  • Make sure vehicle controls are fitted specifically for the attachment in use.


  • Stacks should be on firm, level ground, away from fire hazards, sources of ignition, overhead powerlines, dwellings, boundary fences and footpaths.
  • Make sure stack and load heights do not exceed the lifting capabilities of the farm handling equipment.
  • Big bales should be stacked to a maximum of four bales high.
  • High density bales can be stacked up to six layers high.
  • Wherever possible, stack big rectangular, square or high density bales by overlapping, to form a stable stack.
  • Do not use bale lifting equipment to raise people on or off stacks.


  • Do not allow people to ride on stacked trailers.
  • Be aware of overhead obstructions, like trees, bridges and powerlines.
  • Avoid rough ground that could cause bales to dislodge.
  • Ensure loads are adequately secured.
  • Do not overload vehicles beyond legal limits.

Tillage Equipment

While the skilled operator of tillage equipment avoids errors with very little conscious thought, accident studies show that hurrying and human error are responsible for or are involved in the vast majority of equipment accidents. An operator must have an understanding of the function, operation and limitations of the equipment he/she is operating and the operator must resist the temptation to be hurried into an accident.


  1. Moldboard Plows
    1. Provide adequate front-end weight for tractor stability in transport and operation, particularly with integral and semi-integral plows. Never pull from any point higher on the tractor than the recommended hitch point.
    2. Use extreme caution and reduce speed when transporting the plow and the tractor over rough ground.
    3. Avoid sharp turns at high speeds, especially on slopes.
    4. On tight turns, avoid swinging rear of plow into fences or other obstacles.
    5. Turning stops on semi-integral plows limit turning radius. Shorter turns may severely damage plow frame and tractor hitch.
    6. Never carry passengers on the tractor or permit others to ride on the plow -- particularly plows with automatic reset.
    7. Always lower the plow when not in use or left unattended.
    8. Lower the plow and securely pin the parking stand before detaching the plow from the tractor.
    9. Always use proper lighting, reflectors, slow moving vehicle (SMV) emblem, and other safety devices for road travel as required by state and local laws. (See appendix for more information on SMV emblems).
    10. When hitching drawn plows, always use a hitch pin with adequate strength for the tractor-plow combination.
  2. Disk Plows
    1. Integral plows are transported completely raised, and all weight is carried by the tractor 3-point hitch. Adequate tractor front-end weights are required to offset the plow weight.
    2. When the transporting on a road or highway, always display SMV emblem and use lights and reflectors as required by state and local regulations.
    3. Semi-integral plows are quite long and caution must be used when turning to prevent swinging the plow into fences or irrigation ditches.
    4. Reduce speed when transporting over rough ground, and avoid quick, sharp turns at high speeds.
    5. When transporting semi-integral or drawn plows, always install cylinder locks to prevent accidental lowering of the plow. Relieve the load on hydraulic cylinders before starting to transport.
    6. Lower the plow to the ground or install hydraulic cylinder locks when the plow is not in use.
    7. Watch for other people when raising, lowering, or indexing the plow.
    8. Never permit anyone to ride on the plow, and allow only the driver on the tractor. Do not permit children to play on or near the plow either when parked or in operation.
    9. Lower the parking stand and securely pin it in place before detaching integral or semi-integral plows from the tractor.
  3. Disk Tillers or Oneways
    1. Keep SMV emblem clean and prominently displayed. Do the same with reflectors and warning lights as required by state and local regulations.
    2. Never allow anyone but the operator to ride on the tractor.
    3. Never ride or permit others to ride on the tiller.
    4. Lower the tiller to the ground when not in use.
    5. Secure the machine in the raised position by installing safety locks or hold-up pins when servicing or cleaning it.
    6. Disk blades are extremely sharp; be very careful when working or making adjustments in the disk area.
    7. Never walk close beside the rear wheel when the tiller is in operation. A sudden imbalance of forces could cause this wheel suddenly to jump to the left.
    8. Never grease, oil, or adjust the tiller while it is in operation.
    9. Escaping hydraulic oil under pressure can cause serious personal injury and infection. Therefore, be sure all connections are tight and that oil lines are undamaged. Always relieve hydraulic pressure in lines before disconnecting hoses. See a doctor immediately if escaping hydraulic oil has penetrated the skin.
  4. Chisel Plow
    1. Reduce speed when transporting chisel plows over rough or uneven terrain.
    2. Use lock-up straps or transport locks when transporting a chisel plow.
    3. Be sure wings are locked in the folded position before traveling.
    4. Use proper lights, reflectors, and a clean SMV emblem when transporting equipment on road or highway.
    5. The transport width of most folding-section plows exceeds maximum width of normal vehicles. Therefore, use extreme caution when meeting other traffic, to avoid collisions and the possibility of transport wheels dropping into holes, drains, or ditches along the road edge.
    6. Allow only the operator to ride on the tractor.
    7. Never allow passengers to ride on the chisel plow.
    8. Never allow anyone to stand or work near the chisel plow when it is in operation, particularly when raising or lowering outriggers.
    9. Do not permit children to play on or near the chisel plow during operation or storage.
    10. Provide adequate tractor front-end ballast for stability in transport and operation, especially with integral models.
    11. Be particularly careful of escaping hydraulic fluid, which can penetrate the skin and cause serious infection or reaction if not given immediate medical treatment.
    12. Do not unhitch from the tractor or store a chisel plow when outriggers are in the raised position.
    13. Make sure raised outriggers will safely pass under power and telephone lines.
  5. Disk Harrows and Offset Disks
    1. Always lock safety lock during transport, if the disk is to be left raised for an extended period, or while working on the machine.
    2. Never depend on tractor hydraulic pressure to carry harrow weight in transport--use safety lock, and relieve pressure in cylinders.
    3. Lower integral harrows to ground each time tractor engine is shut off, and any time harrow is being serviced or repaired. If it must be raised for repairs, securely block the frame to prevent accidental lowering.
    4. Always use lights, reflectors, and SMV emblem when transporting, day or night.
    5. Lock the tractor drawbar in fixed position when transporting wheeled disks.
    6. Never transport a disk harrow on its own wheels at more than normal tractor speed, and considerably less than that on rough or uneven ground.
    7. Never clean, adjust, or lubricate the harrow while it is in motion.
    8. Wear protective gloves when working with or near disk blades.
    9. Hydraulic fluid escaping under pressure can penetrate the skin and cause serious infection or reactions. Never use hands to locate the source of a small leak which may be nearly invisible. Obtain immediate medical attention if injured by escaping hydraulic fluid.
    10. Park or block the harrow so it cannot roll when unhitched.
    11. Make sure wings are securely locked in transport position before moving the harrow.
    12. Large disk harrows exceed normal vehicle width, so be particularly careful to avoid collisions when meeting other vehicles on the road. Avoid dropping wheels of tractor or harrow into holes, drains, or ditches along the road.
    13. Provide adequate tractor ballast for front-end stability and to prevent excessive slippage.
    14. Never allow anyone to ride on tractor drawbar or harrow in operation or transport.
    15. Never allow anyone but the operator to ride on the tractor.
    16. Lower the machine or install safety lock when storing a disk harrow.
    17. Never permit children to play on or near a disk harrow while it is in operation, transport, or storage.
    18. Stand clear of harrow wings during folding or unfolding.
    19. Remove spring-loaded scrapers in proper order to avoid personal injury. Use care in relieving any spring under tension or compression.
    20. Do not make sharp turns with blades down.
  6. Field Cultivators
    1. Never exceed recommended transport speed for the cultivator used. If speed is not stated, do not exceed maximum tractor speed.
    2. Reduce speed for turning and travel over rough or uneven ground.
    3. Use transport locks and relieve pressure in cylinders when transporting field cultivators. Do not depend on hydraulic pressure to carry the weight. Always lock wings in transport position and relieve pressure in cylinders.
    4. Never walk or work under wings when they are in the folded position.
    5. Follow state and local regulations regarding lights, reflectors, SMV emblem, and maximum width when transporting on roads or highways.
    6. Transport width of most field cultivators exceeds normal vehicle width. Therefore, use extreme caution when meeting other vehicles and avoid the possibility of dropping tractor or- implement wheels into holes, drains, or ditches along the road edge.
    7. Never permit anyone to ride on the tractor drawbar or cultivator in transport or operation, or to stand near the machine while it is operating--particularly when raising or lowering wings.
  7. Toothed Harrows
    1. Provide sufficient front-end weight for safe, stable operation and transport.
    2. Use widest practical wheel tread to improve tractor stability, especially when working on steep slopes.
    3. Reduce implement to narrowest possible width for transport on roads or highways.
    4. Lock wings or folded sections securely in place before transporting equipment.
    5. Use lights, reflectors, and SMV emblem as required by law when transporting equipment--day or night.
    6. Schedule moves for least hazardous periods; avoid transporting equipment on busy roads, during peak traffic periods, or after dark.
    7. Never transport wheeled harrows, harrow carts, or field conditioners at more than tractor transport speeds; transport considerably slower on rough or uneven terrain.
    8. Never make sharp turns at high speeds.
    9. Never allow anyone to ride on the tractor but the operator.
    10. Never allow anyone to ride on the tractor drawbar or implement in operation or transport.
    11. Always stop implement and tractor engine to adjust, repair, or lubricate.
    12. Lower implements to the ground before stopping tractor engine, before servicing or repairing equipment, or at any time the machines are left unattended.
    13. Never make extremely short turns with drag-type eveners which could foul tractor tires.
    14. Never park implements where they could be hidden by tall or growing crops, grass, or weeds.
    15. Keep PTO shaft properly shielded. Never get off tractor without disengaging PTO and stopping engine.
  8. Packers
    1. Always use reflectors, lights, and SMV emblem as required when transporting equipment--day or night.
    2. Provide adequate front-end weight for tractor stability in operation and transport of integral harrows. Use maximum allowable front ballast if operating integral harrows in lower gears.
    3. Never exceed normal tractor speed when transporting drawn roller harrows, and drive considerably slower than that on rough or uneven ground.
    4. Do not transport roller packers over hard-surfaced roads--use carriers.
    5. Never permit anyone but the driver to ride on the tractor.
    6. Never permit anyone to ride on the tractor drawbar or implement during operation or transport.
    7. Install transport lock pin before storing, transporting, or parking drawn implement; do not depend on hydraulic pressure to support the weight. Lower machines to the ground whenever the tractor engine is shut off.
    8. Pin tractor drawbar in center before transporting.
    9. Never lubricate, adjust, or repair the implement while it is in motion or the tractor engine is running.
    10. Always raise spring teeth before lowering roller harrow to the ground for parking or storage.
    11. Park or block the implement to prevent rolling when it is disconnected from the tractor.
    12. Never try to lift or support the roller harrow on the spring teeth for service or repairs.
  9. Undercutters
    1. Use the SMV emblem, lights, and reflectors as required by law for transporting equipment on roads or highways.
    2. Install the transport safety lock and relieve hydraulic pressure in the cylinders when transporting.
    3. Be certain wings are securely locked in the folded position before transporting.
    4. Limit transport speed as recommended--15 miles an hour (24 Km/h) for some machines, even less on rough or uneven terrain.
    5. Never ride or allow others to ride on the machine during operation or transport. Allow only the driver on the tractor.
    6. Do not unhitch from the tractor or store the machine with wings in the folded transport position.
    7. Sweeps are sharp--watch out for them when wings are folded for transport or when servicing, adjusting, or repairing the plow. Always position wrenches to pull away from sharp edges or corners.
    8. Never stand with feet under blades while making adjustments or during maintenance. Be extremely careful while working within the implement frame.
    9. Do not stand or walk on the plow frame, or under wings when they are folded for transport.
    10. Stand with both feet on the same side of the tongue when hitching or unhitching.
    11. Do not allow children to play on or near the plow.
  10. Rod Weeders
    1. Allow only the operator to ride on the tractor during operation and transport.
    2. Never permit anyone to ride on the rod weeder.
    3. Never exceed recommended transport speed or, if not stated, maximum tractor speed. Reduce speed on rough or uneven terrain or when turning.
    4. Use lights, reflectors, and SMV emblem as required by state and local regulations when transporting equipment, day or night.
    5. Avoid busy highways and peak traffic periods if possible. Move equipment only in daytime.
    6. Never attempt to repair, adjust, or lubricate the rod weeder while it is in motion.
    7. Shut off the engine and relieve the hydraulic pressure in hoses before disconnecting them.
    8. Never exceed recommended transport speed, or tractor road speed if maximum is not stated. Reduce speed when turning or crossing rough areas and slopes.
    9. Always lower parking stands on integral equipment before detaching from tractor.
    10. Always lower equipment or install transport lock before servicing, lubricating or repairing equipment, and when the machine will be left unattended.

All-Terrain Vehicles and Ag Bikes

The term 'Ag bike' refers to all motorbikes with two, three and four wheels, used for farm work. Three and four wheelers are also known as 'all terrain vehicles' or ATVs. Three-wheeled ATV’s are illegal and their use and operation is strictly prohibited.

Spot the hazard

Most Ag bike injuries result from lack of training and experience, speed, uneven or unfamiliar terrain, humps, logs, rocks, embankments, carrying a passenger or an unbalanced load, inadequate protective clothing and unsafe driving. Those aged between 10 and 24 have a significantly higher risk of injury on ATVs.

Assess the risk

Ag bike injuries are predominantly to legs, followed by injuries to spine, arms and head. Three and four wheeler spills often result in the rider being pinned beneath or rolled on by the vehicle. Assess all use of Ag bikes for likelihood and possible severity of injuries. Develop safe use procedures to match the risk.

Make the changes

The following suggestions will help minimize risks.

  • Never ride an Ag bike without an approved helmet.
  • Long sleeves and pants, sturdy boots and gloves all provide protection if you come off the vehicle.
  • Eye protection prevents serious eye injuries from bugs, branches or stones.


  • Check your bike before riding it.
  • Pay attention to maintenance advice in the vehicle manual.
  • Check brakes and tires regularly.
  • Ensure all parts are genuine or are at least equivalent components designed for use on your particular brand of bike.


  • Take extra care when using attachments such as spray tanks and other equipment on your ATV, as they can change the vehicle's center of gravity and affect its stability.
  • Ensure any attachments are designed for use on your ATV.


  • Be on the lookout for potential hazards when riding. Rocks, bumps, irrigation pipes and wildlife all have the potential to cause an accident, and should be approached with caution.
  • Take extra care when operating a bike on unfamiliar or rough terrain.
  • Where possible, use familiar farm tracks.
  • Be particularly careful when turning, approaching a rise or navigating an obstacle. If you are not sure of your ability to clear an obstacle, find another route or go back.

Paved surfaces and public roads

  • Don't drive ATVs on paved or bitumen surfaces. They are not intended for use on smooth surfaces and could be difficult to control.
  • Never ride ATVs on public roads. It may be difficult to avoid a collision if other vehicles are on the road.

Passengers and children

  • Passengers and ATVs don't mix. ATVs are designed to be controlled by the shifting of weight around the vehicle. A passenger limits the driver's ability to do this.
  • Never allow children to operate an ATV without training and appropriate supervision.
  • Children do not always have the weight, limb size, skill and judgement to control an ATV safely.

Stunts and speeding

  • Never attempt jumps, wheelies or other stunts on an ATV.
  • Ride at an appropriate speed for the terrain, your experience and the visibility conditions.

Drugs, alcohol and fatigue

  • Never ride under the influence of alcohol or drugs, including prescription drugs. They may affect your balance, vision, judgment and concentration.
  • Fatigue can also limit your ability to control an ATV safely. Operating an ATV is more physically demanding than driving a car. If you are traveling long distances, take frequent rest breaks.
  • Ensure you are dressed comfortably and appropriately - uncomfortable clothing can make you tire more easily.

Dangers of Agricultural Machinery

Farm machinery uses power to do work. This creates many possible hazards for both operators and bystanders. Even though manufacturers take many steps to make machinery safe, all hazards cannot be removed. Minor and serious injuries can occur when workers are not paying close attention, taking shortcuts, ignoring warnings or failing to follow safety rules. The wide variety of warning, caution and instructional decals placed on machinery are there for your safety.

There are many different types of farm machinery, but they all have similar characteristics and hazards. Not all these hazards can be completely shielded, so farmers must use caution when operating them.

Shear Points

Shear points exist when the edges of two objects move toward or next to each other closely enough to cut relatively soft material.

Cutting points happen when a single object moves forcefully or rapidly enough to cut. They can be found on many types of crop cutting equipment, such as forage harvester heads and sickle bars, and grain augers.

Shear and cutting points are hazards because of their cutting force. They often move so rapidly that they may not be visible, so it is easy to forget that they are there.

Pinch Points

Pinch points exist when two objects move together, with at least one of them moving in a circle. They are common in power transmission devices, such as belt and chain drives, feed rolls and gear drives.

Fingers, hands and feet can be caught directly in pinch points or they may be drawn into the pinch points by loose clothing that becomes entangled. Contact may be made by brushing against unshielded parts or by falling against them.

Shields cover most of these areas to prevent accidents, but on e caught, these machines move too fast for someone caught to get out of a pinch point.

Be aware of these hazards and wear clothing that cannot be caught. Never reach over or work near rotating parts.

Turn off machinery to work on it and replace any missing shields.

Wrap Points

Any exposed, rotating machine component is a potential wrap point. Protruding shaft ends can also become wrap points.

A cuff, sleeve, pant leg or just a thread can catch on a rotating part and result in serious injury. Entanglement with a wrap point can pull a person into the machine or wrap their clothing so tightly the person is crushed or suffocated. A person can even lose their balance and fall into other machine parts.

Even a perfectly round shaft can be a hazard if there is enough pressure to hold clothing against the shaft. Shafts that are not round increase the hazard significantly. Universal joints, keys and fastening devices also can snag clothing.

Be aware of potential wrap points and shield those that can be shielded. Place warnings on those that cannot be covered or paint them a bright color.

Crush Points

Crush points exist when two objects move toward each other, or when one object moves toward a stationary object. Hitching tractors to implements may create a potential crush point. Failure to block up equipment safely can result in a fatal crushing injury. Workers need to be careful so they do not get caught in crush point areas.

Crushing injuries most commonly occur to fingers at the hitching point. Wait until the tractor has stopped before stepping into the hitching position. The head or chest of an operator may be crushed between the equipment and a low beam or other part of a farm building. Usually, these accidents occur when the machine is operating in reverse.

Tree limbs are also potential hazards.

Free-Wheeling Parts

The heavier a revolving part, the longer it will continue to rotate after power is shut off.

Rotary mower blades, baler flywheels and various other farm machinery components will continue to move after power stops.

Workers must allow time for these wheels or blades to stop before approaching them. This may take as long as two and a half minutes.

Pull-In Points

Pull-in points usually occur when someone tries to remove plant material or other obstacles that have become stuck in feed rolls or other machinery parts. Always shut off the power before attempting to clear plugged equipment.


Springs are commonly used to help lift equipment, such as shock absorbers, and to keep belts tight. Springs may harbor potentially dangerous stored energy. Know what direction a spring will move and how it might affect another machine part when released, and stay out of its path.

Hydraulic Systems

Hydraulic systems store considerable energy. They lift implements, such as plows, change the position of implement components, such as a combine header or bulldozer blade, operate hydraulic motors and assist in steering and braking.

Careless servicing, adjustment or replacement of parts can result in serious injury. High-pressure blasts of hydraulic oil can injure eyes or other body parts by burning or penetrating the tissue.

Leaks are a serious hazard. Never inspect hydraulic hoses with your hands because a fine jet of hydraulic fluid can pierce the skin. Get medical attention quickly, or you could lose that part of the body that was injected. Use a piece of cardboard to test the hose for leaks.

Follow the instructor's manual when servicing hydraulic systems. Make certain the hydraulic pump is turned off. Lower the attached equipment to the ground and confirm that load pressure is off the system. Treat hydraulic fluid as flammable liquid. Avoid open flames and sparks if hydraulic fluid has been spilled.

Being aware of these machinery hazards is the first step to prevent accidents. Following manufacturer's guidelines and working cautiously will help to produce a safer working environment for everyone.

Safelty Training Manual

College of Agricultural Sciences
Oregon State University


Chapter 2 - Handling Animals

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 4 - Agricultural Safety Rules


Injuries from cattle relate to a number of factors - inadequate yard design, lack of training of handlers, unsafe work practices, and the weight, sex, stress factor and temperament of animals.

Spot the hazard

  • Check accident records to identify tasks most likely to cause injury.
  • Consider situations that cause stress and injury to handlers and stock.
  • Take into account sex, weight and temperament of stock.
  • Consider effects of weather and herding on animal behavior, and time allowed for settling down.
  • Check potential hazards and safety advantages of stock facilities, including mechanical aids and work layout.
  • Consider what training is required before a person can confidently and competently handle stock.

Assess the risk

  • Using accident records, check which tasks and work situations are most frequently linked with injuries.
  • Discuss safety concerns of handlers in regard to various tasks.
  • Check each identified hazard for likelihood and severity of injury.
  • Assess proposed safeguards and safe procedures for other hazards.

Make the changes

Here are some suggestions for improving safety in cattle handling.

  • Always plan ahead. Prepare and communicate safe work practices. Get assistance if necessary.
  • Wear appropriate clothing, including protective footwear and a hat for sun protection.
  • Make use of facilities and aids - headrails, branding cradles, whips, drafting canes, dogs etc.
  • Know the limitations of yourself and others - work within those limitations.
  • Respect cattle - they have the strength and speed to cause injury.

Facilities and conditions

  • Yards and sheds should be strong enough and of a size to match the cattle being handled.
  • Good yard design assists the flow of stock. Avoid sharp, blind corners, and ensure gates are well positioned.
  • Keep facilities in good repair and free from protruding rails, bolts, wire etc.
  • Where cattle need restraining, use crushes, headrails, cradles, etc.
  • Footholds and well-placed access ways are important.
  • Try to maintain yards in non-slippery condition.
  • Cattle are more unpredictable during cold, windy weather.

The stock

  • Hazards vary according to the age, sex, breed, weight, horn status, temperament and training of animals.
  • Approach cattle quietly, and make sure they are aware of your presence.
  • Bulls are more aggressive during mating season and extremely dangerous when fighting. Separate into different yards where appropriate.
  • Cows and heifers are most likely to charge when they have a young calf at foot.
  • Heifers can also be dangerous at weaning time.
  • Isolated cattle often become stressed and are more likely to charge when approached.
  • Cattle with sharp horns are dangerous - dehorning is recommended where practicable. Dehorned and polled cattle can still cause injury.

Cattle yarding

  • Avoid working in overstocked yards where you risk being crushed or trampled.
  • While drafting cattle through a gate, work from one side to avoid being knocked down by an animal trying to go through.
  • Take care when working with cattle in a crush, e.g. to vaccinate, apply tail tags, etc. A sudden movement by stock could crush your arms against rails or posts.
  • When closing a gate behind cattle in a crush or small yard, stand to one side, or with one foot on the gate in case the mob forces the gate back suddenly.

Kicking and butting

  • To avoid kick injuries, attempt to work either outside the animal's kicking range or directly against the animal, where the effect of being kicked will be minimized.
  • In dairies there is a high risk of being kicked. Try to follow a regular routine so as not to alarm cows - e.g. by placing cold water on their teats.
  • When working on an animal's head, use head bail to restrain it from sudden movement forwards or back.
  • Take care when using hazardous equipment, such as brands or knives for castrating or bangtailing.

Stud cattle

  • When working with stud cattle, train animals to accept intensive handling through gradual familiarization, e.g. grooming, washing, clipping.
  • When leading cattle on a halter, never wrap the lead rope round your arm or hand. If the animal gets out of control, you could be dragged.
  • Bulls should be fitted with a nose ring. When being led, their heads should be held up by the nose lead.


  • Be aware of the risks of contracting such diseases as Leptospirosis or Q Fever when working with animals. These diseases are transmitted through contact with blood, saliva and urine.
  • Hygiene is important. Consider vaccinating herds against such diseases.

First Aid Emergencies: If a person is bitten, scratched or seriously injured by any farm animal, follow proper first aid and medical procedures. First aid procedures are listed in the appendix at the end of this safety manual.


Pig handlers face injuries from the size, strength and temperament of the animals they tend. Injuries may also relate to training of handlers, the safe design of pens, lanes and other yarding, and the administering of drugs and chemicals. Noise in pig sheds can reach levels that require hearing protection.

Spot the hazard

Check the safety of pens, floors and lanes, handling and restraining of animals, safety training for new and young workers, safe lifting methods, safe use of chemicals, and protection from diseases carried by pigs. Study worker injury records for evidence of hazardous jobs and situations.

Assess the risk

Assess whether any of the hazards identified are likely to cause injury or harm, and base safety decisions on the likelihood and possible severity of the injury or harm.

Make the changes

The following suggestions are to help minimize or eliminate the risk of injury or harm in pig handling:

  • Check pens and lanes are large and strong enough for the pigs being handled.
  • Ensure pen design assists the smooth flow of pigs - avoid sharp, blind corners, and ensure gates are well positioned.
  • Keep facilities in good repair and free from protruding rails, bolts, wire and rubbish.
  • Where pigs need restraining, use crushes and nose ropes.
  • Try to maintain non-slippery conditions, especially in lanes and loading yards.

Stock factors

  • Safety in pig handling varies according to a number of factors - age, sex, breed, weight, temperament and training of the animal.
  • Boars can be aggressive and unpredictable. Treat them with caution.
  • Boars are most aggressive during mating, and extremely dangerous when fighting.
  • Prevent boars from coming in contact with each other at all times.
  • When moving boars, use a drafting board.

Lifting pigs

  • When lifting pigs, get assistance where possible.
  • When lifting alone, sit the pig on its hindquarters, squat down, take a firm hold of the back legs, pull the animal firmly against your body and lift, using your legs and not your back.
  • Remember, when lifting a pig this way make sure the pig's head is positioned so that it cannot bring its head back into your face.

Chemicals, vaccinations and injections

  • Read labels on chemicals and antibiotic containers carefully - follow manufacturers' instructions and safety directions.
  • Sterilize needles, teeth cutters and ear pliers, and ensure operators observe hygienic practices.
  • Observe recommended withholding periods for drugs and chemicals before pigs are slaughtered.
  • Wear appropriate protective clothing.
  • If headaches or any other discomfort is suffered after handling chemicals, seek medical advice and have appropriate tests.
  • Avoid these chemicals if possible in future, and use full protective clothing and breathing filters when handling chemicals in the feed mill.
  • Ensure correct dosage rates are maintained.

Transmittable diseases

  • Animals carry diseases that can be transmitted to humans. Be familiar with the symptoms so you can tell if these diseases exist in the herd.
  • If signs of disease appear, have the disease confirmed and animals tested. If the disease is present, treat affected animals appropriately and vaccinate to prevent further occurrence. Maintain a vaccination program.
  • Diseases like Leptospirosis are transferred by urine, blood and saliva, and through open wounds. Keep open wounds covered and wash well with water, soap and antiseptic if contact is made with blood, urine or saliva from diseased animals (See Topic on Zoonoses for further information).
  • Maintain personal hygiene at all times.

First Aid Emergencies: If a person is bitten, scratched or seriously injured by any farm animal, follow proper first aid and medical procedures. First aid procedures are listed in the appendix at the end of this safety manual.


Manual handling injuries - wear and tear to the back, shoulders, neck, torso, arms and legs - are the main problems to avoid when handling sheep. Awkward postures, working off balance, and strenuous, repetitive and sudden stress movements can cause immediate or gradual strain injuries and conditions.

Spot the hazard

  • Take note of sheep handling activities that put strain on any part of the body.
  • Unfit, untrained or out of condition workers are most likely to be injured.
  • Check sheep yarding, handling and shearing facilities for injury hazards.
  • Check injury records for tasks and situations causing most injuries.
  • Discuss hazard concerns with other sheep handlers.

Assess the risk

Assess each identified hazard for the likelihood of injury or harm. Assess also the likely severity of injuries or harm. The more likely and serious the potential injury, the more urgent it is to minimize the risks.

Make the changes

The following suggestions are to help farmers and sheep handlers make sheep handling safer:

  • Use a yard design that will encourage sheep to work freely.
  • Build yards on sloping ground for better drainage.
  • Keep shadows to a minimum where not required to provide shade. Build protective coverings over working and drafting races where practical.
  • Avoid slippery surfaces, especially in races and forcing yards.
  • Keep dust levels at a minimum.

Fitness and health

People working with sheep should:

  • Exercise regularly, and eat a well balanced diet to keep fit and maintain required energy levels.
  • Read labels on chemical containers carefully, and follow manufacturers' instructions and safety directions.
  • Observe recommended withholding periods for drugs or chemicals before stock are slaughtered.

Working with lambs

  • When marking and mulesing lambs, use a cradle where feasible. Keeping a firm grip on lambs helps to avoid cuts and chemical spillage.
  • Catchers should wear protective gloves.
  • Use a work system on cradles that minimizes hazards of being cut, sprayed with chemicals or jabbed with a needle.
  • Sterilize knives, shears and ear pliers, and ensure operators observe hygiene practices.

Jetting, dipping, drenching

  • Choose chemicals that are most efficient and least harmful to humans. Always wear protective clothing, goggles and breathing equipment where specified.
  • Use positive air supply hoods. If headaches or other discomforts occur after handling chemicals, seek medical advice and have appropriate health tests. Avoid using those chemicals in future.
  • Ensure correct mixing rates are used.
  • Keep equipment well maintained, and check regularly to avoid chemical leakage.


  • Plan the muster. Sheep movement is affected by wind direction, location of water, etc.
  • Allow plenty of time. Do not rush stock.
  • Use dogs to control the mob. High speed chases on bikes or horses can cause accidents.

Lifting sheep

  • If sheep need to be lifted, get assistance where possible.
  • When lifting alone, sit the sheep on its rump, squat yourself down, take a firm hold of its back legs while keeping the sheep's head up to restrict movement. Pull the animal firmly against your body, and lift using your legs, not your back.
  • If lifting over a fence, do not attempt to drag the sheep over. Rather, work from the same side as the sheep.
  • To save lifting, put a drafting gate at the end of the handling race. It is advisable to have several positions for "drop gates" in the race to hold sheep that are to be drafted off.


  • Rams can be aggressive and unpredictable. Treat them with caution.
  • When working rams in a race, ensure you are protected from those behind you. This applies particularly when checking testicles, etc. A well-positioned drop gate is useful to reduce the hazard.

Transmittable diseases

  • Animals carry diseases that are transferable to humans. Be familiar with the symptoms so you can determine if disease exists in the flock.
  • If signs of disease appear, have the disease confirmed and animals tested.
  • If the disease is present, treat affected animals appropriately and vaccinate to prevent further occurrence.
  • Diseases are transmitted by urine, blood and saliva, and through open wounds (e.g. scabby mouth).
  • Keep open wounds covered. Wash well with water, soap and antiseptic if contact is made with urine, blood or saliva from diseased animals.
  • Personal hygiene is important at all times.

First Aid Emergencies: If a person is bitten, scratched or seriously injured by any farm animal, follow proper first aid and medical procedures. First aid procedures are listed in the appendix at the end of this safety manual.

Chapter 3 - Dairy Farm Safety

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 4 - Agricultural Safety Rules

pdfDairy farmers often work in isolation, facing risks from animal behavior, mechanical hazards, climatic conditions, and rushed work deadlines.

Spot the hazard

Look for hazard related to lighting, electricity, slips and trips, training and supervision of new and young workers, animal behavior, machinery guarding, heavy lifting and carrying.

Assess the risk

Check each identified hazard for likelihood and severity of injury or harm. The greater the risk and severity, the more urgent it is to minimize or eliminate the risk. Consider appropriate changes and make sure new hazards are not created.

Make the changes

The following are to help minimize risks in dairy farming.

  • Have adequate lighting for early morning and evening milking.
  • Concrete surfaces should be roughened to provide extra traction for both handlers and stock.
  • Design the milking shed to minimize physical effort.
  • Keep guarding in place on moving parts, e.g. belts and rotaries.
  • Check guarding on compressors, pumps, electric motors and grain augers.
  • Have an emergency stop lanyard - in addition to the forward-stop-reverse lanyard.
  • Have a residual current device (RCD) installed on the electrical circuit board.
  • Fit all-weather covers on power boards in wet areas.
  • Ensure milk line supports and union joints meet recommended safety levels.
  • Cover head-high projections like handles on milk filter casings with padding.
  • Keep exhaust pipes clear of walkways.
  • Maintain exhaust systems in good order to reduce noise and fumes.
  • Fence off effluent disposal ponds to keep out children and stock.
  • Clearly mark all water outlets not suitable for human consumption.
  • Ensure hot water taps are inaccessible to children.

Strain injuries

Activities that can lead to back strain injuries include:

  • Long hours working on tractors;
  • Stock feeding;
  • Fencing;
  • Hay and silage preparation;
  • Irrigation.

To reduce the risk of back strain injuries,

  • Use mechanical aids, such as hoists, trolleys, barrows and pulleys;
  • Use team lifting, planning each task in advance;
  • Keep loads small;
  • Keep walkways clear;
  • Modify work areas to minimize bending, lifting, pulling, pushing, restraining, lowering and carrying.
  • Do repetitive tasks at a comfortable height, with the least amount of bending, stretching or leaning.
  • Develop safe lifting techniques - using the legs and not the back.

Hot water

  • Ensure hot water is safely guarded.
  • Have safe procedures for working with or near hot water.
  • Make sure hot water taps can be clearly identified.
  • If appropriate, fix clear warning signs next to hot water hazards.


  • Ensure adequate lighting for milking.
  • Use specialized equipment where you can.
  • Plan tasks and modify equipment to minimize hazardous manual handling.

Chapter 4 - Farm Fuel Safety

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 4 - Agricultural Safety Rules

Accidents in the handling, use and storage of gasoline, gasohol, diesel fuel, LP-gas and other petroleum products (solvents, paint thinners and naphtha) can result in serious fires and explosions. The chances of fire or explosion can be reduced by following safety precautions and by keeping fuel storage facilities in top condition.

Flammable Liquids and Gases

Gasoline, diesel fuel, LP gas, degreasing solvents, paint solvents and certain paints are among flammable materials found on most farms. Keep these liquids away from open flames and motors that might spark.

Keep all petroleum storage and handling equipment in good condition and out of reach of children. Inspect for leaks, deterioration or damage. Never store fuel in food or drink containers.

When transferring farm fuels, bond the containers to each other, and ground the one being dispensed from to prevent sparks from static electricity.

Clean up spills right away and put oily rags in a tightly covered metal container. Change your clothes immediately if you get oil or solvents on them.

In addition, watch out for empty containers that held flammable or combustible liquids. Vapors might still be present. Store these liquids in approved containers in well-ventilated areas away from heat and sparks.

Be sure all containers for flammable and combustible liquids are clearly and correctly marked. Read and heed directions on all product containers, noting flammability and safety precautions.

Do not keep gasoline inside the home or transport it in the trunks of automobiles or recreation vehicles.

Flammable Liquid Storage Requirements

Proper Storage and use of flammable liquids can significantly reduce the possibility of accidental fires and injury to employees. To minimize risk to life and property, the requirements of NFPA 30 & 321, OAR 473-004-0720 and OSHA Standard 1910.106 have been implemented.

Flammable and combustible liquids require careful handling at all times. The proper storage of flammable liquids within a work area is very important in order to protect personnel from fire and other safety and health hazards.

  • Storage of Flammable liquids shall be in NFPA approved flammable storage lockers or in low value structures at least 50 feet from any other structure. Do not store other combustible materials near flammable storage areas or lockers
  • Bulk drums of flammable liquids must be grounded and bonded to containers during dispensing
  • Portable containers of gasoline or diesel are not to exceed 5 gallons
  • Safety cans used for dispensing flammable or combustible liquids shall be kept at a point of use.
  • Appropriate fire extinguishers are to be mounted within 75 feet of outside areas containing flammable liquids, and within 10 feet of any inside storage area for such materials.
  • Storage rooms for flammable and combustible liquids must have explosion-proof light fixtures
  • Bulk storage of gasoline or diesel are kept in above ground tanks. Tank areas are diked to contain accidental spills. Tanks shall be labeled IAW NFPA guidelines. All tank areas shall be designated no smoking - no hot work - no open flame areas.


Be cautious during refueling. Fires and explosions can happen. Besides being a fire hazard, spilled fuel can cause irritation and discomfort if it contacts the skin. Breathing an excess of fuel vapor often causes dizziness and headache.

When arriving to refuel, drive up to the fuel pump or storage tank slowly. Be careful not to bump it. Turn off the engine, and extinguish smoking materials. If the engine is hot, allow it to cool for a few minutes. Position yourself so you can refuel without slipping or becoming fatigued. Remove the fuel cap slowly and allow the pressure to dissipate.

Avoid over filling. Allow any spilled fuel to evaporate before starting the engine. After releasing the nozzle valve to shut off fuel flow, keep the nozzle in the filler opening a few moments to allow it to empty. Check vents to be sure they're not clogged, and replace the filler cap. Then lock up the pumps so children, or other unauthorized persons cannot pump fuel.
Refuel small equipment outside -- never in an enclosed area. A funnel will make the job easier when using a safety can.
Wipe up spills and allow the excess to evaporate before starting the engine. Before resuming work, put the safety can back into safe storage.

Aboveground Tanks

An aboveground storage facility is cost effective. The tanks are movable and ground water or limited flooding has little effect on them.

Aboveground storage tanks must be sturdy and designed for fuel storage. They should be 40 feet or more from buildings. A tank too near a burning building could explode and spread the fire. Mount a tank elevated for gravity discharge on sturdy supports placed on a firm, level surface. Keep the area clear of weeds and trash to reduce fire risk. Remind machinery operators to stay away from the support structure and to not bump it when pulling up to refuel.

Unless tanks are located in a shaded spot or have overhead canopies to shield the sun, evaporation losses can be sizable. Use a pressure-vacuum relief valve (rather than the standard vented cap).

Safety Cans

A labeled safety container is made of heavy-gauge metal and has a cap that automatically closes to prevent a spill if the can is dropped or tipped over. The squat shape makes a safety can difficult to tip. A pressure-relief valve opens when vapor pressure inside the can reaches three to five pounds per square inch. A flash-arresting screen in the filler opening and pouring spout will reduce the possibility of a spark which could cause a fire or explosion.

Label fuel containers according to their contents. Do not risk confusing diesel fuel and gasoline. Paint gasoline cans red and diesel cans green. Store cans in a cool, well-ventilated place, away from living quarters and ignition sources.

LP Gas

The fire or explosion hazard with LP gas usually involves leaks or failures in the system, improper transfer of liquid from one tank to another, or accidents where tanks or lines are ruptured. Also, an LP tank involved in a building, trash or tractor fire can greatly intensify such a fire or even explode.

Large LP storage tanks should be at least 50 feet from the nearest building and 20 or more feet from other aboveground fuel tanks. Provide and maintain solid foundations to support LP-gas tanks so they won't settle or tip and break or damage connections.

Equip the storage tank with a liquid-fill hose and a vapor-return hose. If the vapor escapes into the atmosphere, a fire or explosive danger is created. Therefore, when you fill your fuel tank, the vapor from the top should be fed back into the storage tank.

Be alert for leaks in the LP-gas system. Protect gauges and regulators from weather and dirt. If you smell gas, turn off valve(s) at the tank(s). Open windows and doors to ventilate the building, and don't switch on anything electrical. Get everyone out, and call a technician to find and fix the leak.

More Safety Reminders

Keep all equipment used for petroleum storage and handling in good condition. Watch for leaks, deterioration or damage. Make needed repairs or replace faulty components immediately. Keep cap vents clean and free, and tank and safety can pressure-relief valves functional.

If fuel is spilled on your clothing, go outside, away from any ignition source, and allow the clothing to dry. If more than a little was spilled, remove the garment, and wash the fuel from your skin to avoid irritation.

When siphoning fuel, use a pump. Never use your mouth. A mouthful of gasoline or diesel fuel could be fatal, especially if it gets into your lungs. Also avoid excessive inhalation of gasoline vapor.

When servicing machinery, check the fuel system for leaks. Double check connections to be sure they are secure and leak-free after changing fuel filters or performing other work requiring disconnecting or removing a fuel line or fuel system component.

Turn off oil heaters before refueling. Make sure the filler cap is replaced and tightened. Set portable heaters away from combustibles where they cannot be tipped over.

Motor oil and grease are considerably less flammable than engine fuels, but they will burn. Keep them away from ignition sources.

Gasoline Containers

Gasoline containers are dangerous. They contain a very flammable
substance that can ignite and burn very easily. Extreme care should be used in
the handling and storing of these containers.

Hydrocarbons (gasoline) build up static electricity as they are stirred or agitated,
during refilling.

Always refill gas cans while they are in contact with the ground, and never while in the trunk of a car or in the bed of a truck. Those charged particles are looking for a place to discharge their stored energy and cannot do so safely because the plastic container or a truck bed liner act as an insulator.

Gasoline should always be dispensed into an APPROVED METAL CONTAINER
OF GASOLINE. If in a pinch, use an APPROVED plastic container designed and labeled for the storage and transport of gasoline.

NEVER USE bleach jugs or glass jars to carry gasoline under any circumstance!!!
So now you have your shiny new metal gasoline container and feel all warm and
fuzzy that you are doing the right thing. I'm very pleased with you so far and I will
let you get back to riding after a few more pointers.

Only refuel your engine after it is cool.

Many people have been burnt and scarred for life by gasoline spilling on a hot
engine during the refueling process. We get so used to the convenience of
gasoline, coupled with the fact that we use it every day in our cars that we forget
the energy and danger that a gas can holds.

Safelty Training Manual

College of Agricultural Sciences
Oregon State University


Chapter 5 - Agri-Chemicals

Chapter 5 - Agri-Chemicals

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 4 - Agricultural Safety Rules

Pesticide Safety

Safety with pesticides should be a concern of everyone involved with these chemicals. Although pesticides provide real benefits, they can also be dangerous if mishandled or misused. An accidental death from pesticides is a rarity, but skin disorders and health problems are not. Additionally, improper handling or use of pesticides can result in harmful effects to the environment.

Pesticide safety begins with the selection of the proper product and proceeds through the transportation, storage, mixing, loading, application, and disposal of the pesticide and its container. Read the label.

Understanding the Label

Reading and understanding the label before purchase is the first consideration. The product name provides recognition. It is generally designed to attract you (so you will make a purchase) and to promote product identification. It helps you to find the product when you return to make additional purchases.

The terms "active ingredient" and "percent" give you more precise information. The active ingredient is the material, which controls the pest. Should product "A" have two percent active ingredient, and product "B" four percent, product "B" has twice the amount of actual pesticide and it will be twice as strong. Likewise, if product "C" has two pounds of active ingredient per gallon, it has twice the active ingredient of product "D" if it contains only one pound per gallon. Remember, this comparison applies only when two products have the same active ingredient. Other factors, however, may determine the concentrate of the product best suited for your needs.

There are many other items of information to study on the pesticide label before you can make an intelligent purchase.

EPA Registration Number

Look for this number on every product. It is your assurance that the product has been approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and should be safe and effective when used as directed on the label. This means you must read the rest of the label before making your purchase.

Directions For Use

Before you buy any pesticide make sure the product is labeled for use against the pest, on the plants or animals, in the environment where you plan to use the product. A product may be labeled to control a pest on nursery plants, but not for the same pest on fruits, vegetables, or house plants in the home.


Pesticides carry one of three precautionary words or phrases.

The products most toxic to humans will be labeled "DANGER-POISON" and display a skull and crossbones. These products are extremely toxic in the form found in the container, before they are diluted. Only a few drops could cause severe burns, serious health problems, or even death.

Products labeled "WARNING" are less toxic to humans, but extreme care must be exercised in their use, particularly before they are diluted.

The word "CAUTION" will appear on those pesticides that are the least harmful when used as directed. These products, however, can still cause serious injury or health problems, and even death. You will notice that pesticides carrying even the least toxic message, the word "CAUTION", often carry the statement "KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN."

LD or lethal dose value is another term used in describing pesticide toxicity. An LD/50 indicates the amount of active ingredient in the pesticide formulation that would be lethal to 50 percent of a population of test animals. The LD amount is expressed in milligrams of toxic product per kilogram of body weight. Thus, a pesticide with an LD/50 of 50mg/kg is ten times more toxic than a pesticide with an LD/50 of 500mg/kg.

Classes of Pesticide Toxicity and their Oral Lethal Doses.

Signal Word Toxicity Lethal (Oral) Dose (160 lb man)**
Danger Poison* Highly toxic Few drops to 1 teaspoon
Warning Moderately toxic 1 teaspoon to 1 Tablespoon
Caution Low toxicity 1 ounce to more than 1 pint
* Skull and crossbones symbol included.
** Less for a child or person weighing less than 160 lbs.

Statement of Practical Treatment

This is information about first aid and can be limited or detailed. It may give advice on what to do if the product is accidentally swallowed, inhaled, or gotten into the eyes or onto the skin.

The statement may tell you that you need to purchase additional equipment and supplies before you can use the product safely and be able to deal with accidents effectively.

You need to know what to do if someone is accidentally poisoned by the pesticide. Be sure you understand the Statement of Practical Treatment.

Have materials available to administer first aid. Always call a doctor or emergency room immediately if an accident occurs.

Make sure the doctors are given the pesticide label; it will help the doctor prescribe immediate correct treatment. Emergency telephone numbers, including that of the nearest poison control center, should be posted near all telephones.

Storage and Disposal

Don't purchase the pesticide if you cannot store it properly or dispose of unwanted quantities safely. Seek an agreement with the dealer that unopened, unused quantities can be returned for credit. Purchasers of large quantities of pesticides might even obtain an agreement on the return of empty pesticide containers.

Classification Statement

Some pesticides are classified as "restricted use." These pesticides can be purchased and applied by state-certified licensed applicators only. Restricted use pesticides are identified by a prominent restricted use statement located above the brand name on the front of the label. Pesticides that are not classified as restricted use are considered unclassified and can be purchased and used in accordance with the label by the general public.

You can make intelligent purchases of pesticides by completely reading and understanding the label. A product you have chosen wisely will do the job economically and safely. It is the user's legal responsibility to thoroughly read and follow label instructions. Remember, by reading the directions and warnings before you purchase the pesticide you can protect yourself, your family and the environment from serious accidents.

Pesticide Exposure

There are three ways for pesticides to enter the body:

  1. by breathing it (inhalation),
  2. by swallowing it (also called ingesting), or
  3. by contact through the skin or eyes (absorption).

    All three methods can cause immediate danger.

Inhaled pesticides are absorbed rapidly into the body through the thin membranes of the lungs. Wearing a properly-fitted respirator with the proper cartridge or canister is very important. Replace the canister or cartridge after every few hours of use, or whenever the odor or taste of the pesticide is detected, or when breathing becomes difficult. Working upwind of the pesticide dust, mists, and vapor, and not smoking pesticide-contaminated cigarettes are other safety practices to follow.

Although breathing pesticides is the most rapid way for them to enter the blood stream, most acute poisonings are the result of swallowing pesticides. It happens more often. Swallowed or ingested, they are absorbed more slowly and less completely than by breathing. Establishing good work habits, including washing hands before eating, and not eating, smoking, or drinking while working with pesticides will reduce the chances of ingesting pesticides. It must be emphasized that pesticides should never be stored in anything other than their original containers. Putting pesticides in containers that originally held food or drink has resulted in many accidental poisonings.

All pesticides may enter the body by absorption through the skin and eyes, the most common method of accidental poisoning. The eyes, stomach, groin, arms, hands, and forehead are the likely areas for absorption. Most absorption is through the hands and forearms during the handling, mixing, and loading operations.

The importance of protective gloves and long sleeves can not be overemphasized. Be extremely careful to see that open wounds, sores, or blisters are not exposed to pesticides. Wearing the proper protective clothing and equipment, changing and laundering immediately after working with pesticides, and showering thoroughly with detergent or soap will reduce the danger of absorption.

Should you spill pesticides onto your body, the first two minutes are critical. Immediate removal of your clothing and a long soapy shower are required.

Symptoms of Pesticide Poisoning

Many of the early symptoms of mild pesticide poisoning are similar to the symptoms of the flu, heat stroke, exhaustion or the common cold. However, if these symptoms occur while working, or shortly after you have been working, with pesticides contact your supervisor, nurse, or doctor.

Worker Protection Standard

Basic Responsibilities

The new Worker Protection Standard (WPS) requires that all agricultural workers and pesticide handlers be trained about pesticide safety. It is the employers' responsibilities to ensure that agricultural workers and pesticide handlers have received the pesticide safety training, as described below.

Agricultural workers are those who perform hand labor tasks, such as weeding, planting, cultivating, and harvesting, or other tasks involved in the production of agricultural plants on farms or in greenhouses, nurseries, or forests.

Pesticide handlers are those who handle agricultural pesticides (mix, load, apply, clean or repair equipment), or perform other tasks that bring them into direct contact with pesticides.

Specific Duties

Who Must Be Trained?

Each agricultural worker and pesticide handler must be trained about pesticide safety except those who:

  1. Have been trained within the last 5 years as a WPS handler or WPS worker, even if he or she has changed employers, OR
  2. Currently hold a valid Oregon Private/Commercial Applicator license, OR
  3. Have a current Oregon Pesticide Operator Registration.

Be aware that different WPS training programs are required for agricultural workers and for pesticide handlers. Training materials for both programs are available from EPA, Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, or your county extension office.

When Must Handlers and Workers Be Trained?

  1. Handlers must be trained before they perform any handling task, such as mixing, loading or applying pesticides, etc.
  2. Early-entry workers who will enter a treated area and contact anything that has been treated with the pesticide during a restricted-entry interval (REI) must be trained BEFORE they conduct any early entry task. (Important: Entry during an REI is permitted only in a few strictly limited circumstances; please refer to EPA manual The Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides-How to Comply: What Employers Need to Know pp. 45-47, 59-61 for more information. This manual is also available online at
  3. Early-entry workers who will enter a treated area and NOT contact anything that has been treated with the pesticide during an REI must be trained in the same time period as that described for workers below.
  4. Workers must be trained before they accumulate more than 5 separate days entry into treated areas on an agricultural establishment where, within the past 30 days, a pesticide has been applied or an REI has been in effect. These 5 days need not be consecutive and may occur over several periods of employment or over several seasons or years.

NOTE: Prior to October 20, 1997, workers must be trained about general pesticide safety before they accumulate more than 15 separate days of entry into treated areas.

How Often Must Handler and Workers Be Trained?

Handlers and workers must be trained at least once every 5 years, counting from the end of the month in which the previous training was completed.

When Do WPS Training Requirements Become Effective?

The WPS safety training requirements for agricultural workers and pesticide handlers became effective on January 1, 1995.

Who Can Conduct Training?

  1. WPS handler training can be conducted by anyone who meets one of the following criteria:
    1. Currently be a certified private or commercial applicator of restricted-use pesticides, and have registered with Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (ODEQ); OR
    2. Currently be designated by the state as a trainer of certified pesticide applicators or operators; OR
    3. Has completed a state approved WPS pesticide safety train-the-trainer
  2. WPS worker training can be conducted by anyone who meets one of the following criteria:
    1. Currently be qualified to conduct WPS handler training; OR
    2. Currently be trained as a pesticide handler (NOT a pesticide operator) who works under the supervision of a certified applicator, and have registered with Oregon Department of Environmental Quality; OR
    3. Currently be trained as a WPS handler, and have registered with Oregon DEQ.

How To Conduct Training

  1. To conduct worker or handler training, trainers must:
    1. Use written and/or audiovisual materials,
    2. Present the training orally or audiovisually,
    3. Present the information in a manner that trainees can understand,
    4. Using a translator if necessary, response to trainees' questions.
  2. Anyone who conducts worker training must use non-technical terms the worker can understand.

Content of Training

The pesticide safety training materials for workers and handlers must be either:

  1. WPS training materials developed by EPA, OR
  2. Equivalent material that contains at least the concepts/topics listed in the following Training Criteria for Workers and Handlers.

Criteria For Worker Training

WPS worker safety training must cover the following 11 concepts/topics:

  1. An explanation of the WPS requirements designated to protect workers, including application and entry restrictions, design of the warning sign, posting of warning signs, oral warnings, availability of specific information about applications, and protection against retaliatory acts.
  2. Hazards of pesticides resulting from toxicity and exposure, including acute effects, chronic effects, delayed effects, and sensitization.
  3. Routes through which pesticides can enter the human body.
  4. Signs and symptoms of common types of pesticide poisoning.
  5. Emergency first aid for pesticide injuries or poisonings.
  6. How to obtain emergency medical care.
  7. Routine and emergency decontamination procedures, including emergency eyeflushing techniques.
  8. Warnings about taking pesticides and pesticide containers home.
  9. Descriptions of where and in what form pesticides may be encountered during work activities.
  10. Hazards from chemigation and drift.
  11. Hazards from pesticide residues on clothing.

NOTE: WPS worker training materials must use nontechnical terms that the worker can understand.

Criteria For Applicator/Handler Training

WPS training for pesticide handlers must include the following topics/information:

  1. Items 1-8 of the WPS worker training criteria.
  2. Format and meaning of information on pesticide labels and in labeling, including safety information such as precautionary statements about human health hazards.
  3. Need for and appropriate use of personal protective equipment.
  4. Prevention, recognition, and first aid treatment of heat related illness.
  5. Safety requirements for handling, transporting, storing, and disposing of pesticides, including general procedures for spill cleanup.
  6. Environmental concerns such as drift, runoff, and wildlife hazards.

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Hazard Communication Standard requires that all employees be apprised of all hazards, including pesticides, to which they are exposed. This includes all handlers, mixers, loaders and applicators of pesticides.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires that restricted use pesticides can only be purchased by and applied by trained and state-certified, licensed applicators or others under their close supervision

Transportation and Storage


Pesticides should never be transported inside the passenger compartment of an automobile or truck cab; put them in the trunk or in the back of the truck. Never transport them where they could come in contact with people, groceries, livestock feed, or other products, which might become contaminated.

When transporting pesticides in a truck, see that they are secured to prevent spillage or loss due to sudden starts, stops, turns, etc. Should there be an accident or spill immediately inform the local police and fire officials of the quantity and name of the pesticide involved. Even small spills or releases, particularly of extremely hazardous pesticides, must be reported to the State Emergency Response Commission (SERC) (904-488-1320) and your Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC).

Applicators of pesticides, particularly in populated areas, must take special precautions to secure products transported to the application site. Allowing containers of pesticides to remain unattended on the back of an open truck is inviting an accident, and a costly lawsuit.

Commercial transporters of pesticides must meet special requirements: vehicles must carry placards, bills of lading, labels of the product, etc.


  • Keep pesticides, other poisons, and related materials locked in a cabinet, room, or separate building designated solely for the storage of these materials. Metal storage cabinets, such as discarded school lockers, provide excellent storage for homeowners or other users of small amounts of pesticides.
  • Post the cabinet, room or facility with a sign, "PESTICIDES-POISONS, KEEP OUT", or similar signs.
  • Control access to this facility to only one, two, or three highly trusted, responsible and informed individuals.
  • Never store pesticides where food, feed, seed, fertilizers or other products can become contaminated.
  • Store pesticides in their original containers. It's the law.
  • The facility should be reasonably fireproof and well-ventilated. Temperatures should be kept between freezing and 100 degrees F.
  • Sealed concrete floors with no floor drains, concrete block walls, and metal shelves are recommended instead of wooden structures.
  • With shelf storage, store dry pesticides on the top shelves, liquids on the lower shelves.
  • Electrical fixtures should be of the dust - and explosion - proof type.
  • Provide adequate space for the secure storage of empty pesticide containers until proper disposal of them is possible.

Those businesses with large quantities of pesticides to store should have a separate building for this purpose. In addition to the above features, this facility should also include the following characteristics.

  • Have a concrete mixing/loading pad adjacent to the storage facility. This pad should be roofed to keep rainwater out and the pad should be sloped to capture spilled material.
  • When feasible, the facility should be downwind and downhill from sensitive areas such as homes, play areas, feedlots, animal shelters, gardens, and ground water sources.
  • The facility should be located in an area not subject to flooding.
  • A water supply should be furnished for mixing, loading, tank rinsing and cleanup
  • Showers and cleanup stations should be supplied for the persons who mix, load and apply the pesticides.
  • Fire detectors and fire-fighting equipment should be available.
  • A telephone should be convenient, with all emergency numbers posted.
  • A current inventory of all materials in storage, along with a label of all materials, should be maintained in a secure area away from the storage area. The local fire department and the Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) should be provided with an updated copy of this inventory, along with a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for each extremely hazardous pesticide you have in storage.
  • Equip the storage area with the needed personal protective equipment and materials to prevent accidents and to handle accidents and spills. Activated charcoal, absorptive clay, vermiculite, clay-granule cat litter, or sawdust are good materials to absorb liquid spills.
  • Date and identify all pesticides when they are placed into storage, and store no more than will be needed for one season. Establish a policy of first-in first-used so that pesticides do not become outdated.
  • Have your fire insurance carrier inspect your pesticide storage facility periodically. It is intelligent management, and may reduce your insurance premium.

Mixing and Loading

Mixing and loading pesticides are among the most dangerous tasks with these products, because it is at this time that people are working with open containers of concentrated pesticides.

For this reason, individuals employed to perform this activity should be well-informed of the dangers involved, and work under the close supervision of a properly certified, licensed applicator whenever handling restricted-use pesticides.

Mixing and loading should never be done without a full understanding of the pesticide label and should always be done with the use of all recommended personal protective equipment. The label will identify the dangers involved and the precautions to follow. It may indicate the signs and symptoms of poisoning, and recommend first aid practices should one be exposed to the product.

Before you begin to mix, load, and apply pesticides, and after you understand the label directions, make certain you have taken the following precautions.

  • Have detergent or soap and an adequate supply of water available.
  • Know the early symptoms of poisoning for the pesticide you are using.
  • Know the first aid procedures and make certain that materials and supplies are available.
  • Be certain the materials are available to handle spills.
  • Make certain that all equipment is functioning properly.
  • Do not work alone; be sure help is available if you get into trouble.
  • Have all the recommended protective clothing and equipment. Double-check that the respirator fits properly and has the correct canister or cartridge.
  • Never eat, drink, smoke or go to the bathroom while working with pesticides without first washing your hands.

You are now ready to begin mixing and loading. Follow these suggestions. Reread the label and follow the directions; pay special attention to the warnings and precautions.

  • Make sure only authorized mixers, loaders and/ or supervisors are in the mixing and loading area. No other people or animals should be in the area.
  • Work only in a well-ventilated, well-lighted area.
  • Pesticide containers should be in a secure position when being opened to prevent any spillage. Be sure everyone is wearing the proper personal protective equipment.
  • Mix and pour concentrated pesticides down low, preferably below waist level. Never pour pesticides at eye level. A spill or splash could be disastrous. Always remove clothing and wash yourself and your clothing thoroughly, immediately (within two minutes), if pesticides are spilled or splashed on you.
  • Stand with your back to the wind - upwind - so that any fumes or dusts are blown away from you.
  • Pour the pesticide into water, never water into the pesticide.
  • If stirring is necessary use a stir stick, never your hands.
  • Mixing and loading is best done on a concrete slab, where spills can be contained more effectively. If mixing and loading must be done in a field or grove, never mix or load near a well-head or surface water. Stay at least 100 feet away. Do not mix and load in the same location repeatedly. Change locations and clean up all spills.
  • Never pour pesticide directly into a spray tank. Always mix and dilute in a pail or container.
  • When pouring, stand with your head well above the spray tank to prevent pesticides from splashing in your face. Protect your eyes with splash-proof goggles.
  • Never overflow a spray tank. The cleanup could be an all-day/all-night task and could be costly and dangerous.

After the mixing/loading task has been completed your responsibility continues.

  • Securely close pesticide containers immediately after use. Return unused pesticide to its proper storage.
  • Clean up all spills, no matter how small the amount.
  • Wash mixing and loading pails, measuring devices, and stirring equipment or tools in strong detergent water, rinse in clear water, and store to air-dry.
  • Wash your personal protective equipment in detergent, rinse, and hang to air-dry.
  • The wash and rinse water used in the above steps can best be disposed of by pouring it into the spray tank. Don't overfill the spray tank. Otherwise there will be no room for the rinse water.
  • Remove your clothing and launder separately with heavy-duty liquid detergent and hot water. DO NOT USE BLEACH, as it could cause a dangerous chemical reaction. Line-dry the clothing where it is exposed to sunlight.
  • Take a hot shower using a detergent type soap. Don't forget to wash your hair. Put on clean clothing.


When applying pesticides, applicators are not exposed to the same high concentration of pesticide as they are during the mixing and loading operation. However, the time-length of exposure is much longer, thus the cumulative exposure may be equal to or greater than that during the mixing/loading operation.

Pesticide applications are made with everything from hand sprayers and dusters, to irrigation equipment, to large airblast grove sprayers and aircraft. Whatever equipment is used, many of the safety precautions are the same.

  • Read and follow the label. Applications made that vary from label requirements are violations of federal law.
  • Use the correct equipment and make sure it is properly maintained and adjusted. Screens, strainers, and nozzles should be clean and functioning properly. Nozzles should be of the right type and properly adjusted and all lines, valves and seals should be checked for leaks.
  • The application equipment should be accurately calibrated on a regular basis. Whenever you have any suspicion that the equipment is applying an inaccurate amount, recalibrate the equipment. Your operator's manual should provide information on calibration of the equipment. Additional information is available through your county's Cooperative Extension Service.
  • Wear the proper protective clothing and equipment.
  • Check the weather forecast frequently to determine if conditions will be favorable for the application and effectiveness of the pesticide.
  • Avoid spraying near sensitive areas where drift could damage neighboring crops or the environment. When spraying must be done in these areas, attempt to spray when the air is still, humidity is high, and any potential drift will be away from sensitive areas.
  • Lower pressures, proper boom and nozzle adjustments, larger nozzle size and drift-reducing additives (if the label permits) will reduce drift.
  • Do not make field adjustments to the sprayer in a recently sprayed, still wet area. Move to an unsprayed area.
  • Never attempt to clean a nozzle, screen, or hose by blowing or sucking on it with your mouth. Use small, soft-bristle brushes and/or an air pressure bulb for these purposes.
  • Always empty a tank by spraying the entire contents onto the vegetation or other area for which it was intended. Never drain a spray tank onto the ground. Never mix more than you need!

Pesticide and Pesticide Container Disposal

Major problems exist in the disposal of pesticides and pesticide containers. These are: the disposal of excess quantities of mixed pesticides, disposal of rinsates, the disposal of unwanted quantities of obsolete, deteriorated or unwanted pesticides, and the disposal of containers.

Accidental Spills

Accidental spills can happen in transport, in storage, or in the mixing, loading, or application activities. Many labels describe what actions should be taken should a spill occur; if the label contains such directions, follow them.

If the spill or release is a pesticide classified as an extremely hazardous substance (EHS) and exceeds the reportable quantity (RQ) you must follow the procedures detailed in SARA TITLE III, the Community Right-to-Know Law, requires that these spills or releases be reported immediately - within fifteen minutes - to the local fire department and the Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) or the State Emergency Response Committee (SERC).

The following are practices to follow with all spills.

  • Secure the accident scene.
  • Keep people and animals away.
  • Equip the clean-up personnel with protective equipment.
  • Keep the spill from spreading.
  • Control the spill by banking with soil, or by absorbing the liquid.
  • Never hose down a contaminated area.
  • Notify the local fire department immediately.
  • Contact EH&S

The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) has established regulations requiring submission of reports of spills, above certain amounts. All large spills of a hazardous chemical such as a pesticide (more than one gallon liquid or one pound solid) must be reported promptly to EH&S. That office will make the report to DEQ, LEPC, or SERC if necessary.

If the spill is liquid then activated charcoal, absorptive clay, vermiculite or sawdust should be used to soak up all the material. Sufficient absorbent material should be used to soak up the liquid. The material should then be swept up and/or shoveled into a leakproof drum. Saturated soil should also be placed into drums.

It may be necessary to neutralize the area. Again, check the label. Hydrated lime, lye, ammonia, sodium hypochlorite and detergents are frequently recommended.
Supplies of absorbent and neutralizing materials should be available in the storage or mixing/loading area at all times, along with the tools and other supplies necessary for a clean-up.
The contaminated materials may be hazardous wastes. In many cases they are not usable and must be shipped to an incinerator or sanitary landfill approved for disposal of hazardous wastes. This type of disposal is costly, therefore, it is important to follow all safety precautions to prevent spills.

Special Requirements for Nurseries and Greenhouses

Under the EPA's Worker Protection Standard (WPS) nursery and greenhouse operations are required to provide workers with specific protections. These include safety training for pesticide handlers and general workers, the posting of application information in a central area, the distribution and use of personal protective equipment (PPE), etc. There are, however, special requirements, which apply only to nurseries and greenhouses. The following outlines these special restrictions.


Nurseries are required under WPS to follow special restrictions during applications in terms of who can enter treated areas. Basically, non-pesticide handlers are not allowed into treated areas during applications and in certain circumstances are not allowed within specific distances from the treatment area. Once the application is completed, workers may not enter the treated area during the Restricted Entry Interval (REI) for the materials applied. Workers, however, are allowed to enter bordering areas that were restricted during the application.

Special Entry Restrictions

The special entry restrictions apply only during the application of a pesticide and are grouped based on the method of application used.

The first category covers materials applied aerially, or in an upward direction, or using a spray pressure greater than 150 psi. During these applications non-pesticide handler workers are not allowed in the treated area and within 100 feet surrounding the entire treatment zone. This restriction also applies for fumigant, smoke, mist, fog and aerosol applications.

The second category for restriction applies to materials that are applied in a downward direction using a spray pressure between 40 and 150 psi, or applied as a fine spray, or from a height greater than 12 inches above the tops of plant material. For these situations, non-pesticide handler workers are not allowed in the area and within 25 feet surrounding the entire treatment zone.

This requirement also applies if the pesticides label requires the applicator to wear a respirator during applications.
The final category covers any other method of application such as drenches, etc. In these situations non-pesticide handler workers are not allowed in the treated area.


Greenhouses are also required under WPS to follow special requirements during and after applications in terms of sign posting and who can enter treated areas. The posting of signs on greenhouse doors during all applications and REI's is mandatory. Entry restrictions are based on how a material is applied.

Special Entry Restrictions - During an Application

If the pesticide is applied as a fumigant, no non-pesticide handler is allowed in the entire greenhouse, including any adjacent structure that cannot be sealed off from the treated area until ventilation criteria are met.

If the material is applied as a smoke, fog, mist or aerosol, or if the label requires the use of a respirator during applications, non-pesticide handlers must vacate the entire enclosed area during treatment until ventilation criteria are met.

If any other application method is used and the material is applied from a height greater than 12 inches above the tops of plants, or is applied as a fine spray, or using a pressure greater than 40 psi, the treatment area and 25 feet surrounding the treatment zone must be vacated until the application is completed.

For all other application techniques only the treated area must be vacated until the application is complete.

Special Entry Restrictions - Following Applications

After the application is complete, if the above criteria have been met, workers may enter treated areas during the REI if they wear appropriate PPE. However, what is considered to be the treated area during the REI may vary.

If the application involved a fumigant, there are no entry restrictions once ventilation criteria have been met. If the material was applied as a smoke, mist, fog, or aerosol, the treated area is the entire enclosed area. For all other application methods the area physically treated with a pesticide is restricted from entry.

Ventilation Criteria

In certain situations, workers are not allowed into treated areas until specific ventilation criteria for the greenhouse are met (see above). In these situations, employers must make sure that one of the following criteria are met:

  1. The concentration of the pesticide in the air is measured to be less than or equal to any inhalation exposure level required on the label, or
  2. If no inhalation exposure level is listed on the pesticide label then:
    1. 10 air exchanges have occurred (for questions regarding air exchange rates contact EH&S, 737-2273), or
    2. 2 hours of ventilation using fans or other mechanical ventilation is used, or
    3. 4 hours of ventilation using vents, windows or other passive ventilation system, or
    4. 11 hours with no ventilation followed by one hour of mechanical ventilation, or
    5. 11 hours with no ventilation followed by 2 hours of passive ventilation, or
    6. 24 hours of no ventilation.

Remember, no workers may enter the areas treated in the greenhouse until these have been met.

Chapter 6 - Chain Saw Safety

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 4 - Agricultural Safety Rules

Modern lightweight chains saws have become common on farms, as well as in urban areas. They are frequently used for cutting and trimming trees, cutting fireplace wood, and cleaning storm damage.

The principal danger in chain saw use is in getting cut by the saw blade. It is important to realize that the modern chain saw cuts through material very quickly, and as it breaks through it can cut you. Wearing protective gear will safeguard you from cutting injuries. There are a number of other factors that can make chain saws hazardous.

  • Inclement weather
  • Falling trees
  • Saw noise and vibration
  • Unsafe operation

The Weather

Wind can create serious hazards when cutting down trees. It can come up or change direction unexpectedly and cause a tree to fall in the wrong direction. Avoid cutting trees on windy days.

Rain, snow and ice may lead to slips and falls. Be especially cautious when working under these conditions. If possible, put the job off until the weather improves.


Periods of hot, dry weather make leaves and grass a fire hazard. A faulty muffler can provide a spark that could set off a fire. Also, don't let dry combustible material contact a hot muffler.

Spilled fuel adds to the danger. Refuel on bare ground with the engine stopped and wipe spilled fuel off the saw at once. Move at least ten feet upwind from the fuel source before starting the saw. Carry fuel only in safety cans.

The Tree

Certain trees can be dangerous to cut, especially for inexperienced operators. Professional lumberman have coined some expressions that describe problem trees:

  • Widowmaker--This is a tree with broken or dead limbs. Serious injury can result from a limb falling on you.
  • Spring pole--This is a sapling that's bent and held down under tension by another tree. If the spring pole is cut or the other tree is removed from it, the sapling could snap up with tremendous force and seriously injure anyone nearby.
  • Schoolmarm--This is a tree with a prominent fork in the trunk or two trees grown together at the base. This makes it difficult to predict which way the tree will fall.

Until you've had plenty of experience or instruction, don't attempt to cut trees like this.

The Saw

With extended use, chain saw noise can cause hearing lose. Additionally, noise and vibration can cause fatigue and swelling of the hands. To reduce these potential harmful effects:

  1. Select a saw that has low noise and vibration characteristics
  2. Wear hearing protection equipment
  3. Take periodic rest breaks

A chain saw must be properly maintained to be safe. This includes keeping teeth sharp, correct chain tension, proper lubrication, and keeping a properly tuned, clean engine. Keep the engine adjusted so the chain stops moving when the throttle is released. Check your operator's manual for maintenance information.

The Operator

The most important factor in chain saw safety is the operator. Personal protective equipment such as trim fitting clothes, a safety "hard" hat, hearing protection devices, safety goggles, non-slip shoes and gloves should be provided. Protective leggings will also help.

To start the saw, place it on level ground and get good footing. Hold the saw with one hand and pull the starter rope with the other. Keep others away when starting the engine.

Use extreme caution to be sure the chain does not contact limbs or logs other than the one you want to cut, strike nails or stones or touch the ground when it is operating. The saw will jump back if the chain at the top of the bar touches anything and could cut the operator. This is called kickback. A chain that's misfiled or loose is likely to kick back. Kickback is also likely if you start a cut with the saw chain moving too slowly.

Be sure the bumper is against the tree while sawing or the chain riding across the tree may jerk the saw out of your hands.
Never carry a saw when it is running. If you should fall, the saw could spin around and cut you severely. The engine should be stopped and the saw carried with the blade pointed to the rear.


Only after you have mastered steady and even cutting should you attempt to fell a tree.

Check the situation carefully before felling a tree. Take note of the longer branches and wind direction to determine how the tree will fall. Be sure you have a clear area around the tree in which to work, and an open pathway from the tree for an escape route. Remove dirt and stones from the trunk of the tree where the cut will be made.

Examine trees for loose, dead limbs before felling. If such limbs appear to be a hazard, remove them before felling the tree.
When felling a tree:

  1. Cut through trees less than 8 inches thick with one cut.
  2. On larger trees make the notch cut on the side of the tree on which it is expected to fall. It should have a depth of approximately one-third the diameter of the tree. Make the lower notch cut first. This keeps the chain from binding and being pinched by the wedge of wood while the notch is made.
  3. Make the felling or back cut at least 2 inches higher than the horizontal notching cut. The felling cut should be kept parallel with the horizontal notching cut. Cut it so that wood fibers are left to act as a hinge, keeping the tree from twisting and falling in the wrong direction.
  4. Keep the guidebar in the middle of the cut so that cutters returning in the top groove don't re-cut the wood. Don't twist the guidebar in the groove. Guide the saw into the tree -- don't force it. The rate of feed will depend on the size and type of timber.
  5. Remove the saw from the cut, shut it off and put it down before the tree falls. The tree will begin to fall as the felling cut approaches the hinge fibers. Move to a safe spot at a 45° angle away from the line of fall.
  6. Do not cut through the hinge fibers. The tree could fall in any direction. -- maybe in the direction in which you are retreating.


Most chain saw accidents happen during limbing operations. Leave the larger lower limbs to support the log off the ground to aid bucking cuts. Prune the smaller limbs in one cut by starting at the bottom end of the tree. Undercuts should be used on limbs supported by branches to keep from binding the chain.

On small logs stand on the opposite side from the limb being cut. If on a side hill, work on the uphill side.


Make sure you have good footing and can get out of the way if the log should start to roll. On sloping ground, stand above the log rather than below it. If possible raise the log clear of the ground by using limbs, logs or chocks. To avoid pinching the guidebar and saw chain in the cut and splintering the log at the finish of the cut, use the following procedure.

  1. When the log is supported along its entire length, cut it from the top (overbuck).
  2. When the log is supported on one end, cut one-third of the diameter from the underside (underbuck). Then make the final cut by overbucking the upper two-thirds to meet the underbucking cut.
  3. When the log is supported on both ends, cut one-third of the diameter from the top (overbuck). Then make the final cut by underbucking the lower two-thirds to meet the overbucking cut.


When removing a limb on a standing tree, hoist the saw with a rope. Don't carry the saw while climbing. You need to use both hands to climb safely.

It is best to use a safety rope around the tree. Fasten it securely to your waist to avoid falls.


Topping is a technique for cutting off the top part of a tree while it's still standing. It's a difficult procedure and should be attempted only by highly skilled loggers.

Chapter 7 - Rotary Agricultural Mower Safety

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 4 - Agricultural Safety Rules

pdfAn accident with a rotary mower can cost you your life! A rotary agricultural mower can also injure innocent bystanders, so it is also important that they be alert and aware of safety rules. Using proper equipment correctly, keeping equipment in good repair and following safety practices are the best ways to prevent accidents.

Safety Practices for Rotary Mowers

Use the right type of mower for the job - Know the job you are going to do, and use the correct mower for it. Check your operator's manual for the type of job your mower is designed to do. For example, don't try to cut brush with a mower designed only for forage. You could be exposed to hazards caused by machine failure. Use heavy-duty blades where they are needed, and use a large enough machine to do the job properly.

Keep others away - Don't allow riders on your tractor, and keep people away from the work area. Bystanders can be seriously injured or killed if struck by a thrown object or run over by the tractor or mower.

Watch for objects that can be thrown by the mower and remove them from the area - Tin cans, stones, wire or other objects may be hurled by the mower blades, causing serious injury or death.

Be alert to obstacles - Obstacles such as ditches, holes, rocks and stumps can throw you off the tractor or cause the tractor to upset. Be especially alert when objects can be hidden by tall grass, weeds or brush. Use the seat belt if your tractor is equipped with roll-over protection.

Before dismounting for any reason - Disengage the power take-off (PTO), turn off the engine and set the brakes.

Be sure the blades are stopped before approaching the mower - Many rotary mowers have blades that continue to rotate for some time after the PTO is disengaged.

Be careful turning sharp corners - On pull-type mowers, the rear tractor wheel could catch the mower frame and throw it on you. With three-point-hitch-mounted mowers, the mower could swing outward when you make a turn. Front wheel weights may be needed to help you keep control.

Set your rear tires as wide as possible - Wide-set tires provide greater tractor stability and lessen the chance of a tractor overturn.

Maintenance for Safety

  • Before operating your mower, study your operator's manual carefully to familiarize yourself with its maintenance procedures.
  • Begin your pre-operational check by making sure the power take-off is disengaged and the engine is shut off. Look for loose nuts and bolts.
  • Blade sharpness is a key to efficient, safe mowing. Inspect the blades often, and replace them when they become too dull for additional sharpening.
  • Remember that hazards increase when you are having problems with the equipment.
  • Rotary mowers are equipped with runners and safety guards. To avoid excessive wear on the runners, keep the mower just high enough so that it does not ride on the runner shoes.


Chain or belt guards reduce the possibility of objects being thrown from under the mower. Be sure these guards are maintained and kept in place. Power take-off shafts should also be protected by shields or guards. Keep them in place on the machine.

Chapter 8 - Trenching and Excavation

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 4 - Agricultural Safety Rules

Excavation Operationspdf

The most serious hazard of trenches is cave-in due to improper shoring and sloping of the trench. Other injuries are caused by work activities performed in the trench. These hazards include accidents due to falling materials, machinery, and exposure to noxious gases. Electrocution from utility lines or pipes, and slips and falls while climbing in and out of trenches are also potential hazards. Factors to consider before shoring or sloping are:

  1. Determine the location of underground pipes, electrical, gas, sewage, or fuel lines before digging.
  2. Trench depth: If the trench is 5 feet deep or more, it must be shored or sloped. If there is a possibility of soil movement, even shallower trenches have to be shored. If you have any doubt about it -- shore or slope the trench.
  3. Running Soils: The more liquid the soil, the more you need to use additional types of shoring.
  4. Changing Weather Conditions: Hard packed soil can become soupy and unstable after rain. Trenches, which are safely sloped or shored in dry weather, can be very dangerous in wet weather.
  5. Heavy loads in the area: Don't park heavy equipment next to a trench. Nearby structures such as buildings, curbs, trees, and utility poles will exert stress on trench shoring.
  6. Vibration: If you are digging a trench near a roadway or where other operations create vibration, make the shoring strong enough to withstand the added stress.
  7. If a trench is 5 feet deep or more, work should be supervised by an individual knowledgeable about trench safety.
  8. Always shore from the top down, and take it out from the bottom up.
  9. Keep water away from trench banks.
  10. Make sure electrical lines and cables are grounded, guarded or de-energized.
  11. Make sure that shoring material is the right kind, in good condition, and free of defects.
  12. Place soil removed from the trench at least 2 feet from the trench rim.
  13. Always wear hard hats and other necessary protective equipment.
  14. Notify your supervisor when you are working in a trench.
  15. For easy, safe and quick exit, set exit ladders every 25 feet for trenches greater than 4 feet deep.
  16. Post warning signs and rope off the areas that may be dangerous to the public and other employees.


Chapter 9 - Irrigation Equipment Safety

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 4 - Agricultural Safety Rules

pdfThe following suggestions are aimed at ensuring the safety of the irrigator as well as preventing damage to his equipment.

  1. Read and follow directions in the owner's manual for each piece of equipment, paying particular attention to the safety precautions and features listed. Make sure that all employees also read and understand all directions and precautions.
  2. Disconnect electric power before servicing a machine by personally shutting off and locking the master control. Also make sure that everyone is clear of the machine before it is turned back on.
  3. Stay away from the equipment during an electrical storm.
  4. Protect electric motors from overload, overheating, overvoltage, undervoltage, phase imbalance in three-phase electrical systems, phase failure, low current or high current.
  5. Be sure the engines used to power pumps are equipped with safety devices that will stop them before damage occurs from overload, overheating, loss of oil pressure or runaway (if pump becomes disconnected or loses its prime).
  6. Be sure all pumps are equipped with devices that will shut off the electric motor or engine it there is a break in the suction or loss of pressure in the main pipeline.
  7. To perform overhead maintenance, use a ladder that is sufficiently tall as well as
  8. Have qualified service personnel perform any hazardous repair or maintenance.
  9. Keep all guards and shields in place, especially those covering power-take-off units.
  10. Make sure that service or auxiliary equipment is not in the path of the irrigation system.
  11. Be certain that moving irrigation equipment will not contact buildings, power lines, poles, wires, etc.
  12. Bury all power lines around the equipment, and clearly mark where they are buried.
  13. Keep away from moving parts when equipment is in operation.
  14. Stay out of the way of high-pressure water streams, such as end guns.
  15. If fuses or circuit breakers keep blowing, don't "correct" by over-fusing. Find the cause.
  16. Do not irrigate at air temperatures below 40F. Spraying has a cooling effect, and the water can freeze even though the temperature is above 32F.
  17. Periodically check the system for any loose or missing bolts, which could cause collapse of the equipment.
  18. Know what to do should an emergency situation occur, and also instruct all employees on what to do.
  19. If chemicals have been added to the irrigation- water, avoid exposure to spray drift; and make sure that the spray does not blow past the area of intended operation.
  20. Look overhead and note electric lines that are within reach of the long pipes. When lifting and transporting the pipe sections, keep clear of the power lines.

Chapter 10 - Common Zoonoses in Agriculture

Health and Safety Training Manual: Section 4 - Agricultural Safety Rules

pdfCertain diseases carried by animals can also affect humans. These are known as zoonoses, and if you work with animals you may be at risk from them. Although some zoonoses (anthrax, brucellosis or rabies) are now uncommon in the US, good occupational hygiene practices will protect against them as well as other more common zoonoses.

If you think that you have a zoonotic disease you should consult a doctor quickly. It will help your doctor to know if you work in agriculture or have recently come into contact with farm livestock.

Legal requirements

Zoonoses are caused by micro-organisms, which are subject to the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1994. These Regulations require employers and self-employed people to:

  • Assess the risks to health from work activities which involve a hazardous substance (eg a micro-organism);
  • Prevent or, where this is not reasonably practicable, adequately control exposure to the hazardous substances;
  • Introduce and maintain control measures;
  • Inform, instruct and train employees about the risks and precautions to be taken.


Everyone working with livestock should follow the principles of good occupational hygiene to protect against the risk of contracting a zoonosis. Consider the following precautions:

  • Avoid or minimize using equipment or tools likely to cause cuts, abrasions or puncture wounds;
  • When taking blood samples, use a vacuum-operated device rather than syringes and dispose of needles into a sharps box or other strong container which must be labeled and disposed of safely, but not through the domestic waste stream;
  • Avoid mouth-to-mouth resuscitation of new born animals;
  • Wash injuries immediately in running water and cover the wound with a waterproof dressing. Consider whether you need first-aid training;
  • Cover existing cuts and abrasions on exposed skin with waterproof dressings before beginning work - some organisms enter the body through open wounds;
  • Wash hands and exposed skin before eating, drinking or smoking;
  • Have clean towels available;
  • Only drink clean water out of clean containers;
  • Thoroughly wash PPE after use.

Personal protective equipment (PPE)

Your risk assessment will inform your decision on whether PPE is needed. Remember:

  • Only consider using PPE after you have considered other steps such as not doing the task or using controls such as avoiding contact with infected animals. However, the nature of your work with animals may mean that PPE is your only practicable option;
  • Wear PPE whenever helping animals to give birth, handling the products of birth (eg placenta), examining mouths or during rectal examinations. Suitable PPE will include a waterproof apron or parturition gown and obstetric gauntlets for calvings/lambings etc and plastic or latex gloves for oral or rectal examinations;
  • Use face protection (for eyes and mouth) if there is a risk of splashing from urine or placental fluids. Suitable protection will include a faceshield to BS 2092:1987;
  • PPE must be suitable and properly maintained; cleaned after use; and new PPE must be CE marked.

Symptoms and controls for some common zoonoses


Organism: the protozoa Cryptosporidium parvum;
Host animal: calves and lambs;
Hazard to humans: diarrhea and abdominal pain with flu-like symptoms for up to six weeks. The young and the old are at greater risk;
Transmitted by: contact with animal feces and drinking water contaminated with animal feces;
Treatment: non-specific. Supportive care only;
Prevent by: good personal hygiene, use of clean water for washing and drinking;
Control in animals: good standards of hygiene in calf rearing housing; avoid contaminating animal drinking water with feces.

Leptospirosis (Weils Disease)

Organism: bacterium - Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae;
Host animal: rats;
Hazard to humans: fever, headache, vomiting, muscle pain; can lead to jaundice, meningitis and kidney failure. Can be fatal;
Transmitted by: contact with infected rat's urine or watercourses contaminated with it;
Treatment: early diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics is vital;
Prevent by: using a tool (fork, shovel) or wearing protective gloves to move dead rats; maintaining a high standard of personal hygiene; controlling or eliminating rats on the premises; always using first-aid dressings to cover cuts and abrasions;
Control in animals: none.


Organism: orf virus;
Host animal: sheep and goats, in particular lambs;
Hazard to humans: ulcerative lesions on face, hands and arms;
Transmitted by: contact with lesions on animals or with infected wool, fencing or hedges;
Treatment: none. Lesions heal within six to eight weeks;
Prevent by: good personal hygiene; covering cuts and scratches on hands and arms with first-aid dressings;
Control in animals: a live vaccine is available for sheep which will also minimize economic losses from orf infection in lambs.

Ovine Chlamydiosis (Enzootic abortion of ewes)

Organism: Chlamydia psittaci;
Host animal: mainly sheep, possibly goats;
Hazard to humans: may cause abortion; flu-like illness;
Transmitted by: handling or contact with an affected afterbirth;
Treatment: antibiotics;
Prevent by: avoiding contact between pregnant women and pregnant ewes; leaving work-wear at the workplace for cleaning (wives/partners of men working with sheep may contract the disease by contacting soiled workwear);
Control in animals: consider vaccinating breeding sheep if enzootic abortion is confirmed in flock.
Visitors to farms may also be exposed to the disease; ensure they are aware of the risk and, if reasonably practicable, prevent access to risk areas.

Psittacosis (Ornithosis)

Organism: Chlamydia psittaci;
Host animal: caged, wild and exotic birds; can spread into ducks and other poultry;
Hazard to humans: flu-like illness which may lead to pneumonia and in severe cases endocarditis, hepatitis and death;
Transmitted by: inhaling dust or aerosol from feces or nasal discharge from infected birds;
Treatment: antibiotics. Early diagnosis important;
Prevent by: local exhaust ventilation in evisceration areas if reasonably practicable; if not, using half mask respirators to BS EN 140, with filters to BS EN 141; good personal hygiene.
Control in animals: high standard of flock husbandry important. Avoid producing dust, maintain good ventilation and screen flocks for the organism.

Q Fever

Organism: Coxiella burnetii;
Host animal: mainly sheep and cattle;
Hazard to humans: mild illness, chill, headache and general malaise, but in rare cases can cause pneumonia, liver and heart valve damage and death;
Transmitted by: contacting animal or products; inhaling dust contaminated with material from afterbirths, urine and feces;
Treatment: antibiotics;
Prevent by: good personal hygiene; careful movement of infected bedding and afterbirths; wearing protective gloves and coveralls;
Control in animals: safely disposing of animal waste, in particular afterbirths and bedding soaked in birth fluids.


Organism: in cattle, the fungus Trichophyton verrucosum;
Host animal: mainly cattle but pigs, sheep, horses and dogs can be infected with a similar fungus;
Hazard to humans: inflamed, swollen, crusty skin lesions mainly on hands, forearms, head and neck;
Transmitted by: spores entering skin through cuts and abrasions; spores transmitted to skin from handling infected livestock or equipment (gates etc) they have rubbed against;
Treatment: early diagnosis and treatment by doctor important;
Prevent by: high standard of personal hygiene and always covering cuts and other skin wounds with waterproof dressings.
Control in animals: preventing and treating disease in animals; high standard of cleanliness in buildings, in particular calf pens, cattle crushes etc;


Section 5 – Appendices

Emergency Response and Phone Numbers

Health and Safety Training Manual: Appendices



Fire Department 911
Ambulance 911
Univ. Police & Security Services 7-7000
Environmental Health & Safety 7-2273
Facilities Services (24-hr. service) 7-4038
Radiation Safety 7-2227


The first three items listed above should be visibly displayed on every Oregon State University telephone.


Any on-the-job accident that results in a fatality or the immediate hospitalization of an employee shall be reported WITHIN 8 HOURS by telephone to Environmental Health and Safety (7-2273), who in turn will make the required notification to OR-OSHA.


Activate the building fire alarm by pulling the nearest wall "fire pull" to alert occupants. The alarm does not always call fire fighters to the scene, but most alarms are connected to the campus notifier system which is monitored by Security Services Dispatch Center. Call the Corvallis Fire Department (911), and give the exact location of the fire. Evacuate occupants from the building. Follow building evacuation procedures below. Send someone outside the building to direct fire fighters to the scene. For small fires, use the closest appropriate fire extinguisher. Do not use water on electrical fires.


When the alarm sounds, walk to the nearest exit. Use the stairways. Do not use the elevator. It can quickly become a smoke or fire trap and may lose electric power. Be aware of alternate exits from the building.
Before leaving the work station, take personal valuables and lock up any valuable materials or documents. Do not, however, endanger life through delay. Assist non-ambulatory persons in leaving the building. (For detailed instructions, see Building Evacuation Planning.)

Use fire escape ladders only when stairways are closed by fire. In an actual fire, feel each door before opening it. If it feels hot, use an alternate exit. If caught in smoke, keep low where the air is better. Take short breaths through the nose.
When outside the building, do not block doorways or driveways. Stay a minimum of 100 feet from the building. Do not return to the building until advised to do so by personnel in charge.


Determine the extent of the person’s injury. Check for breathing, pulse, bleeding, possible fracture, and pain. Administer first aid as indicated by the extent of the injuries. If the injured person is:

  • not conscious or ambulatory, dial 911 on any campus phone for the Corvallis Fire Department ambulance. The ambulance crew will determine whether injured students should be transported to the Student Health Center or to the hospital.
  • conscious and ambulatory STAFF, arrange for transportation by car or ambulance to the hospital or doctor’s office as desired by injured person. If a supervisor or fellow employee is not available to provide transportation, contact Security Services (7-7000). They have the responsibility to ensure that appropriate transportation is obtained.
  • conscious and ambulatory STUDENT, arrange transportation to the Student Health Center in Plageman Hall by calling Campus Security (7-7000) day or night. Students may also go to their personal physicians if desired.


In the event of a large scale catastrophe, the President of OSU may proclaim a disaster and invoke the OSU Disaster Management Plan. The provisions of this plan supersede routine emergency procedures.


First Aid & Special Medical Service

Health and Safety Training Manual: Appendices

Emergency Medical Plan*

Oregon Safety Codes state that every place of employment having more than one employee must have an emergency medical plan.

If a physician or an ambulance with an emergency medical technician is available to the place of employment within 30 minutes, the “emergency medical plan” is the posting of the emergency 911 number on or adjacent to operating telephones.

If the place of employment is not within 30 minutes of a physician or equipped ambulance, the emergency medical plan shall consist of:

  1. Communication: a two-way radio, telephone, or provision for emergency communication to contact an ambulance, physician, or hospital.
  2. Transportation: the availability of transportation to a point where an ambulance can be met or to the nearest suitable medical facility.
  3. A qualified first aid person (Red Cross training within the past three years). Employees are to be informed of the first aid person’s identity by super-visors. The name can also be posted by first aid kits and updated as necessary.

First Aid Supplies

Oregon State Safety code requires that first aid supplies shall be available in close proximity to all employees. The required supplies are based upon the intended use and types of injuries that could occur in the work environment.

It is the responsibility of each department to determine how many first aid kits are needed for its work areas and to develop a program for maintaining these kits. First aid kits and replacement supplies are available through the Facilities Services stores. The basic kit should contain, but not be limited to, the following items:

  • Eight gauze pads individually wrapped (3" x 3" or larger)
  • Two large gauze pads that can be folded to an approximate size of 8" x 10" or equivalent
  • One box adhesive bandages
  • One package gauze roller bandage at least 2" wide, or equivalent
  • Two triangular bandages
  • Wound-cleaning agent, such as sealed, moistened towelettes, or soap and water (not needed where running water is available)
  • Scissors
  • One blanket or equivalent

First Aid Training

Individual first aid training is available through the local Red Cross office.

*For emergencies see Emergency Response.


Prescription safety glass request form

pdf Prescription Safety Glass Request and Authorization Form

pdf Prescription Eyewear Order Form

Respirator fit test & medical questionnaire forms

OSU Respiratory Protection Program

Required Fit Tests

  • Fit tests are required on initial issuance of respirators for all employees
  • Fit tests will be conducted by EH&S or other approved groups as outlined in this document
  • Additional fit tests are required for each employee when a new type of respirator is issued
  • Negative pressure respirators, requiring a fit factor of 100 or less, will be tested using one of the following qualitative fit procedures:
    1. Isoamyl Acetate Test using a fit-test tent (preferred method)
    2. BitrexTM (Denatonium Benzoate) Solution Aerosol Test using a fit-test tent
    3. Irritant Fume Test using stannic chloride [NO TENT]
  • Fit testing of respirators requiring a fit factor of greater than 100 (e.g., tight-fitting atmosphere supplying respirators, such as SCBA) will be performed with quantitative fit testing
  • Contact EH&S for additional information or to arrange a test.
  • Fit testing must be repeated and documented at least annually for all employees

Medical Fitness Evaluation

Safety shoe request form

OSU Safety Footwear Program

pdf Safety Shoe Request and Authorization Form

Safety training forms and checklist

pdfCollege of Agriculture

Farm Safety Training checklist

Department:                                                   Supervisor:                                                 

Employee Name:                                           Employee ID #                                           


Supervisor Check Training to be Conducted







Hazard communication and Right-To-Know

Sec. 2 Ch. 1


   - Video #1


   - Instruction


Confined and Hazardous Spaces

Sec. 2 Ch. 1


  - Video #2


  - Instruction


Lock Out / Tag Out

Sec. 2 Ch. 3


Machine Guarding

Sec. 2 Ch. 3


Personal Protective Equipment

Sec. 2 Ch. 4


   - Instruction


Manual Handling

Sec. 2 Ch. 5


Physical Labor

Sec. 2 Ch. 6



Sec. 2 Ch. 7


Workshops and Maintenance

Sec. 2 Ch. 8


Forklift Safety

Sec. 2 Ch. 9


   - Video #3


   - Instruction


Elevated Work surfaces

Sec. 2 Ch. 10


   - Video #4


Electrical Operations

Sec. 2 Ch. 11


   - Video #5


Painting Operations

Sec. 2 Ch. 12


   - Video #6


Firearms Safety

Sec. 2 Ch. 13


Severe Weather

Sec. 2 Ch. 14


Motor Vehicle Maintenance and Operation

Sec. 2 Ch. 15


Laboratory Safety

Sec. 2 Ch. 16


Hearing Conservation Program

Sec. 3 Ch. 1


Respiratory Protection Program

Sec. 3 Ch. 2


   - Instruction


Health Hazards in Agriculture

Sec. 3 Ch. 3


Ergonomics in Agriculture

Sec. 3 Ch. 4


   - Video #7


Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure Control

Sec. 3 Ch. 5



College of Agriculture

Farm Safety Training checklist


Supervisor Check Training to be Conducted







Tractor Operation

Sec. 4 Ch. 1


   - Video #8


Tractor maintenance

Sec. 4 Ch. 1


Grain harvesting Equipment (combines)

Sec. 4 Ch. 1


   - Instruction


Baling Hay

Sec. 4 Ch. 1


Tillage Equipment

Sec. 4 Ch. 1


ATV’s and Ag. Bikes

Sec. 4 Ch. 1


Dangers of Agricultural machinery

Sec. 4 Ch. 1


   - Video #9


Cattle Safety

Sec. 4 Ch. 2


Swine Safety

Sec. 4 Ch. 2


Sheep Safety

Sec. 4 Ch. 2


Dairy Farm Safety

Sec. 4 Ch. 3


   - Video #15


Farm Fuel Safety

Sec. 4 Ch. 4


Pesticide Safety

Sec. 4 Ch. 5


   - Video #10


WPS for the Agricultural Handler / Applicator

Sec. 4 Ch. 5


   - Video #11


   - Instruction


WPS for the Agricultural worker

Sec. 4 Ch. 5


   - Video #12


   - Instruction


Requirements for Nurseries and Greenhouses

Sec. 4 Ch. 5


Chainsaw Safety

Sec. 4 Ch. 6


   - Video #13


Rotary Agricultural Mower Safety

Sec. 4 Ch. 7


Trenching and Excavation Operations

Sec. 4 Ch. 8


Irrigation Safety

Sec. 4 Ch. 9


Common Zoonoses in Africulture

Sec. 4 Ch. 10


WPS for Orchard Workers


   - Video #14


First Aid


   - Video #16 (Humorous)


Other: Specify


Slow-Moving Vehicle Emblem

Health and Safety Training Manual: Appendices

The Society for engineering in agricultural, food, and biological systems (ASAE), which develops standards for specific agricultural equipment and materials, has a standard for the design and manufacture of Slow-Moving Vehicle (SMV) emblems. This standard specifies the quality and durability of the yellow-orange fluorescent triangle that provides daylight identification of slow-moving vehicles. Under this standard, the fluorescent center-piece is fade resistant, making it durable over an extended period of time.

One important feature of this standard is the placement of the manufacturer's name and address on the emblem and a statement that this emblem meets the requirements of the ASAE. An example of this certification and location is shown on the SMV below. Requirements for the SMV emblem are also summarized:


  1. General rule--All implements of husbandry and special mobile equipment designed to operate at 25 miles per hour or less and all animal-drawn vehicles shall, when traveling on a highway, display on the rear of the vehicle a reflective slow-moving vehicle emblem as specified in regulations of the department. The use of the slow-moving vehicle emblem shall be in addition to any other lighting devices or equipment required by this title.
  2. Limitations on use or display--No person shall use or display the slow-moving vehicle emblem except as provided in this section nor shall any person display the emblem on a vehicle traveling at a speed in excess of 25 miles per hour.
  3. Towed vehicles--The emblem shall be required to be displayed on a slow-moving vehicle which is being towed on a highway unless the towing vehicle displays the emblem in such a manner as to be clearly visible from the rear.

The term "highway" as used in the Code, is officially defined as "the entire width between the boundary lines of every way publicly maintained when any part thereof is open to public use for purposes of vehicular traffic."

Emblems that have a metal or plastic backing, as well as decal emblems, are suitable for use. The emblem should be seen from a distance of at least 600 feet day or night. The fluorescent yellow-orange center is the most visible color in daylight, and the red reflective border is highly visible in headlight beams after dark.

Farmers should replace faded SMVs with newer emblems as soon as they begin to fade. All slow-moving vehicles should have the ASAE standard SMV emblem properly displayed at all times.

For questions on obtaining SMV emblems, contact EH&S at 737-2273.