Chapter 1 - Introduction and background Chapter 2 - Purpose and Scope Chapter 3 - Safety and Health Policy Statement Chapter 4 - Program Compliance and Responsibilities Chapter 5 - Safety Training and Communications
- Recordkeeping and documentation
- Safety items required by law
Chapter 1 - Hazard Communication (Right-To-Know)
- Hazardous Communication and Training Act
- Hazardous Chemicals Index
- Material Safety Data Sheets
- Employee training and information
- Container labeling
- Non-routine tasks
- Contractor requirements
- Chemical Waste Disposal
Chapter 2 - Confined Space Entry
- Written procedures
Chapter 3 - Energy Control Program
- Lock out/Tag out procedures
- Machine guarding procedures
Chapter 4 - Personal Protective Equipment
- Use, responsibility, cost
- Protective apparel
- Foot protection
- Eye protection
- Hand protection
- Hearing protection
- Head protection and helmets
- Fall protection and harnesses
Chapter 5 - Manual Handling Chapter 6 - Physical Labor Chapter 7 - Welding Operations Chapter 8 - Workshops & Maintenance
- Woodworking machines
- Grinding machines
- Metal lathes
- Metal cutting band saws
- Metal planers, shapers, drilling & boring machines
- Power presses & forming equipment
- Explosive actuated tools
- Handling chemicals
Chapter 9 - Forklift Operations Chapter 10 - Elevated Work Surfaces
- Aerial lifts
Chapter 11 - Electrical Operations Chapter 12 - Painting Operations Chapter 13 - Firearms Chapter 14 - Severe Weather Chapter 15 - Motor Vehicle Maintenance Safety Chapter 16 - Laboratory Safety
Chapter 1 - Hearing Conservation Program Chapter 2 - Respiratory Protection Program Chapter 3 - Health Hazards in Agriculture
- Farm noise
- Heat stress
- Stress and overall worker health
Chapter 4 - Ergonomic Farming Chapter 5 - Bloodborne Pathogens Exposure Control
Chapter 1 - Farm Machinery and Equipment
- Tractor operation
- Tractor maintenance
- Grain harvesting equipment
- Baling hay
- Tillage equipment
- All-Terrain Vehicles and Ag bikes
- Dangers of AG machinery
Chapter 2 - Handling Animals
Chapter 3 - Dairy Farm Safety Chapter 4 - Farm Fuel Safety Chapter 5 - Agri-Chemicals
- Pesticide safety
- Worker Protection Standard
- Pesticide applicator
- Pesticide worker
- Special requirements for greenhouses and nurseries
Chapter 6 - Chainsaws Chapter 7 - Rotary Ag Mowers Chapter 8 - Trenching and Excavation Operations Chapter 9 - Irrigation Safety Chapter 10 - Common Zoonoses in Agriculture
-Safety training forms and checklist -Respirator fit test & medical questionnaire forms -Prescription safety glass request form -Safety shoe request form -Fire and Emergency procedures
-Emergency phone numbers
-First Aid and Special Medical Service -Slow Moving Vehicle (SMV) Emblem
I. Oregon State University is a land-grant university with a deep-rooted history of agricultural science education and research. As such, there is a profound interest in the safety and health of the agricultural workers at the main campus, out-lying units, and facilities across the state. This set of occupational safety and health rules are meant to provide all agricultural workers at Oregon State University the proper guidelines to prevent accidents and loss of life, or health. Under all circumstances, workers must be properly trained to perform their required task.
II. All guidelines in this set of agricultural safety rules were developed from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) - 29 CFR 1910, 1926, and 1928 as adopted by O.A.R., Oregon OSHA 437-004, and 40 CFR part 170, EPA’s Worker Protection Standard for pesticide handlers. Workers are reminded that the Oregon State University is regulated by OR-OSHA and Oregon Department of Environmental Quality.
III. These rules are to be used as building blocks for individual agricultural units to properly provide adequate safety and health protection for their workers. Department heads or directors should add local regulations and procedures that are specific for their location. Department heads or directors are responsible for implementation of safe work practices
IV. This manual is intended to be flexible so departments or superintendents can use and apply only those sections that pertain to them. Department heads or directors should add local regulations and procedures that are specific for their location. The University Farm Safety Committee will review this manual on a regular basis and make changes as Federal and State laws change.
V. The University has a responsibility to provide a safe workplace for its employees. Workers also have a responsibility to follow safe practices to protect themselves and others working around them. In agricultural work as with other types of labor, there is a certain amount of common sense that must be brought to the job by the worker. Rules and guidelines cannot always be provided to ensure or guarantee a safe workplace in all work situations. Therefore, agricultural workers must use common sense in those situations.
The purpose of this Agricultural Safety Manual is to create an overall awareness of the hazards of the job as well as to offer guidelines for safe agricultural practices. Employees are required to review, be familiar, and understand the information set forth in these guidelines. Interested personnel are referred to these documents for assistance or additional explanations with the rules.
Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) developed this program to help the College of Agriculture protect students, faculty and employees from exposure to agriculture hazards and to facilitate university compliance with local, state and federal safety-related regulatory requirements. This program complies with the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations 29 CFR 1910, 1926, and 1928 as adopted by O.A.R. OR-OSHA 437-004.
This safety program applies to Oregon State University Research and Experiment Station properties, and work performed by Oregon State University employees. This program addresses the recognition, evaluation, and control of hazards related to agricultural operations and agricultural research.
It is the policy of the College of Agricultural Sciences and OSU to pursue every reasonable effort to provide a safe and healthful working environment for employees and students. The College of Agriculture recognizes the value of the individual employee. The safety and health of our employees is our highest priority. Employees are required to follow all University safety rules. Unsafe working conditions, unsafe practices, or machines that are unsafe to operate must be reported to supervisors immediately. Employees also must report to their supervisors any injuries that occur at the workplace. It is further policy that faculty, staff, and students shall conduct their work and activities in a safe manner.
The College of Agriculture intends to comply with all safety laws and regulations. Safety issues will be reviewed regularly with our employees.
While the President is ultimately responsible for the safety of staff, faculty, and students, it is necessary that considerable safety responsibility be delegated to the department head, who in turn delegates responsibility to supervisors and/or building managers. Our faculty and staff administrators will be held accountable for fulfilling their safety responsibility.
It is the acceptance of this responsibility, and the safety attitude of these people that determine the success of the safety program. Past and continued excellent performances in this vital activity are much appreciated.
The senior administration of Oregon State University fully supports the concept of agriculture safety and accident prevention for faculty, staff, students and visitors and encourages all feasible means of achieving a safe and healthful working and learning environment.
It is the policy of the University to maintain, within reason, facilities and practices that are in compliance with local, state, and federal health and safety regulations. In the absence of appropriate statutes or regulations, standards of nationally recognized professional health and safety organizations will serve as a guide.
Although the President has the ultimate responsibility for the safety of staff, faculty, and students, a great deal of safety responsibility has been delegated to supervisors. A supervisor may be a dean, department head, director, manager, administrator or any other faculty or staff person who is in charge of one or more employees.
Supervisors are directly responsible and accountable for the welfare of employees and students assigned to them and for the administration of health and safety regulations and university safety procedures within their areas of control. One of the criteria for evaluation of administrative personnel shall be their administration of safety procedures and accident prevention efforts.
It is the responsibility of every supervisor to provide and document the initial and continuing safety training necessary to allow employees to perform their work safely. This must be a joint effort between the supervisor and employee and must include frequent work observations by the supervisor and prompt correction of observed unsafe work habits.
New employees experience a high number of injuries, primarily because they may be unfamiliar with proper safe work procedures. To reduce this vulnerability, supervisors must ensure that new employees receive the appropriate initial safety training. The Office of Environmental Health and Safety can provide additional safety information.
The safety responsibilities for supervisors in the work areas and for the employees they control should include the following duties. The acceptance of these duties, and the safety attitude of supervisors will determine the success of the Ag safety program.
Employees of the university must have a common goal of keeping accidents to a minimum. Most accidental injuries in the work environment are caused by unsafe work habits. Therefore, all employees should continually strive to develop habits and procedures that will reduce exposure to potential injury. Employees are urged to make safe performance an essential element of every task. As part of their safety responsibilities, employees are expected to do the following:
Supervisors, both faculty and staff, are responsible for establishing, implementing, and maintaining a system for communicating with employees and students about health and safety matters. Information must be presented in a manner readily understood by the affected employees and students. Attention must be given to levels of literacy and language barriers. Verbal communications should be supplemented with written materials or postings. Whenever appropriate, statutes and policies affecting employees and students shall be available in the workplace.
Faculty, staff, and students who may come in contact with hazardous substances or practices in the workplace shall be provided information concerning the particular hazards which may be posed, and the methods by which they may deal with such hazards in a safe and healthful manner. In areas where hazardous chemicals are used, handled, or stored, communications about these hazards shall conform to the Chemical Hazard Communication policy set forth in the OSU Safety Handbook. (See OSU Administrative Policies and Procedures manual)
Records of inspections, including who conducted the inspections, dates, any unsafe conditions or practices found, and corrective actions taken, must be maintained for three years and be available to EH&S, OR-OSHA, Oregon Department of Agriculture (ODA), or United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) on demand. Self-inspection and guidelines are available from EH&S. Supervisors must also document training and communications, whether conducted in classes, safety meetings, or one-on-one job safety training sessions.
Specifically, the supervisor must keep records of who was trained, who did the training, when the training occurred, and what was taught. Training records will be kept in a training file, and training records for individual employees should be kept in each employee’s file. The same holds true for students
Documentation should include safety meeting and/or training session agendas, signup sheets with signatures of attendees, and copies of any written communications.
Recognition of Hazards: In addition to regular inspection, employees need to be responsible for maintaining a safe, orderly workplace. Employees should be encouraged to let management know of unsafe or hazardous conditions. Employees are also encouraged to offer solutions for safety problems or concerns.
Safety items should be posted as required by law. Posters are available on Worker Protection Standards and other laws that can be placed in a common area. Also, items such as MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheets) and records of pesticide application to fields need to be readily available to employees.
The Hazard Communication and Training Act require employers to inform workers about hazardous chemicals in their work areas and to provide training in safety procedures. Oregon State University has designated Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) to administer a program to comply with this law.
EH&S maintains a list of all hazardous chemicals or substances in the workplace. Each department is responsible for providing EH&S with a copy of each material safety data sheet which they receive from manufacturers.
Departments may obtain computerized material safety data sheets for hazardous materials from EH&S by using one of the following procedures:
If a necessary material safety data sheet is not on the computerized list, contact EH&S; they will obtain a copy of the MSDS from the manufacturer of the hazardous chemical.
Each supervisor is required to train each employee concerning the presence and safe handling of hazardous chemicals in the employee's workplace. This training shall be provided at the time of the employee's initial assignment and whenever a new hazardous chemical is introduced into the workplace.
This training should include at least the following:
It is recommended that a record of this training be maintained by the supervisor. EH&S has developed training outlines and may be contacted for assistance. Each employee must also receive a copy of Working Safely with Hazardous Materials, a Handbook for Employees. This booklet is given to each new employee as part of the orientation program conducted by the Department of Human Resources and EH&S.
All chemicals and chemical products that are in their original container must be clearly labeled, including the content, appropriate hazard warning, and name and address of the manufacturer. Supervisors must verify that all containers in their area of responsibility are properly labeled. If a proper label is not provided, the supervisor should contact EH&S for labels and instructions.
Supervisors must ensure that all secondary containers are labeled with either an extra copy of the original manufacturer's label or with other labels that contain at least the name of the chemical and the appropriate hazard warning. EH&S can provide assistance in labeling.
When a university employee is required to perform a hazardous non-routine task involving a chemical substance, the supervisor should inform each affected employee of:
University policy requires all contractors to submit to EH&S a hazardous chemical list and/or material safety data sheets for those chemicals that fall within the scope of the Hazard Communication rules. This list should be submitted at least five (5) working days before introduction of the chemical to the campus. This gives EH&S time to provide safety information to university employees and other contractor employees who will be involved with the chemical.
Departments are responsible for removing, if possible, all hazardous chemicals to which contract employees may be exposed during their work. If requested, employing departments are responsible for supplying contractors with a chemical list and/or material safety data sheets prior to the beginning of any job. This information must include all hazardous chemicals to which contract employees will be exposed while at the job site and protective measures they may take to lessen the possibility of exposure.
It is the responsibility of the employing department to notify contractors of their right to this hazardous chemical safety information.
Hazardous chemical waste refers to any material substance that is
Hazardous waste is incinerated (at off-site locations). Departments are charged for the cost of hazardous waste disposal, so departments are encouraged to employ waste reduction procedures to limit costs. Use the following guidelines to dispose of hazardous chemical waste.
Certain environmental conditions within a confined space pose special dangers for workers, because space configuration hampers efforts to protect them from serious hazards. Employees shall not enter a confined space until appropriate safety measures have been taken to ensure a safe environment.
Safe entry into a confined space is the joint responsibility of the supervisor, the attendant and the employee who enters the space. Each entry into a confined space must be evaluated by the supervisor of the employee entering the space to determine the hazards involved and the appropriate safety measures, procedures, and controls. Supervisors must ensure that confined space entry procedures are followed and those personnel understand and comply with all safety requirements. Employees must inform their supervisor of any departure from required procedures.
It is the responsibility of Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) to assist supervisors in the identification, evaluation and labeling of all confined spaces in facilities controlled by OSU.
Supervisors must report to EH&S all locations in their work space that may be considered confined spaces in order that these areas can be evaluated and labeled with a sign if required.
The configuration of some confined spaces do not readily allow for the installation of a sign. For example all sewer and storm drains that are entered through a manhole are to be considered permit required confined spaces, whether labeled as such or not. Employees must not rely solely on the existence of a warning sign. Employees must be trained by their supervisor to recognize areas that may be confined spaces and not enter these areas until a determination is made.
A space defined by the existence of ALL of the following conditions:
A confined space, which has in addition to the three conditions which define a confined space, ONE OR MORE of the following characteristics:
To protect employees, OSHA standards require employers to institute a “permit system” for entering certain confined spaces. All Oregon State University locations must develop written site-specific procedures for how to evaluate and enter permit-required confined spaces. The entry permit system must include written permits. Copies of completed permits should be kept as part of the departmental operating records. OSU Safety Instruction Number 2 describes and establishes the written procedures for the Corvallis campus.
Every employee who participates in a confined space entry project must have the understanding, knowledge, and skill necessary for the safe performance of duties assigned for the confined space entry, as part of the employee’s safety training. Supervisors are responsible to see that each of their employees has been provided the appropriate safety training.
When a contractor is expected to perform work in a confined space, the university’s contractor liaison will inform the contractor if the space is considered a permit-required confined space. The contractor will be advised of the elements, which create the permit-required confined space and the associated hazards. The contractor will also be advised of the facilities written confined space procedures. The contractor will be required to contact an OSU representative at the completion of the entry to discuss any hazards confronted or created during the entry.
When both a contractor and OSU employee will be making a joint entry, the entry will be coordinated by the OSU employee’s supervisor.
The purpose of the OSU energy control program is to clearly define procedures for the control of hazardous energy. These procedures cover the servicing and maintenance of equipment in which the unexpected energizing, start up, or release of stored energy could cause serious injury to employees. All sources of energy, including electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, gravitational, and thermal need to be considered.
The primary method of control of hazardous energy is utilization of lockout/tagout procedures. Supervisors are responsible for identifying equipment having the characteristics defined above and for providing instruction in the lockout/tagout procedures to employees who work on that equipment. (Training materials are available through EH&S, 7-2505).
Employees trained in lockout/tagout procedures will be designated as authorized employees. Other employees working on or around this equipment, but not trained in the lockout/tagout procedures, will be known as affected employees.
The basic rule mandates that all equipment shall be locked or tagged to protect against accidental or inadvertent operation when such operation could cause injury to personnel.
Lockout shall be the exclusive method used for the isolation of all energy sources that are designed to accept a locking device. Tagout devices, such as tags or signs, must be used if a locking device cannot be attached to the control switch or valve.
Tags and their means of attachment are to be substantial enough to prevent inadvertent or accidental removal. Nylon cable ties are the recommended method of tag attachment. Whenever major replacement, repair, renovation, or modification of equipment is performed, and whenever new equipment is installed, the energy control switch or valve for that equipment shall be able to accept a locking device.
The following sequence of lockout or tagout procedures shall be followed in all cases in which an employee is required to remove or bypass a guard or other safety device; and all cases in which an employee is required to place any part of the body into an area on a piece of equipment at the point of operation, or where an associated danger exists during an operating cycle.
Before lockout or tagout devices are removed and energy is restored to the equipment, the employee shall follow these procedures:
Each safety lockout or tagout device may only be removed by the employee who applied the device—with one exception. Removal of a safety lockout or tagout device by any other person than the one who applied the device may be done only by the direction of a supervisor and under the following procedure:
In the preceding steps, if more than one individual is required to lockout or tagout the same equipment, each shall place his or her own personal lockout device or tagout device on the energy-isolating device(s). When an energy-isolating device cannot accept multiple locks or tags, a multiple lockout or tagout device (hasp) is to be used.
When more than one authorized person has implemented lockout/tagout in order to assist in the servicing or maintenance of equipment, only the person who applies the first lock and the person who removed the last lock will be required to notify employees in the immediate affected work area of the application and removal of lockout/tagout devices.
In situations in which lockout or tagout devices must be temporarily removed from the energy-isolating device and the equipment energized to test or position the equipment or one of its components, the authorized employee will comply with the following:
Whenever outside personnel are to be engaged in activities requiring the control of hazardous energy, they must use a lockout/tagout program. The OSU construction inspector and the outside contractor are to inform each other of their respective lockout or tagout procedures.
The supervisor of each university unit that uses lockout/tagout will perform an annual inspection of the energy control procedure in the unit to ensure that the procedure and the requirements of OR-OSHA lockout/tagout rules are being followed.
Training will be provided to ensure that the purpose and procedures of the energy control program are understood by employees and that the knowledge and skill required for the safe application, usage, and removal of lockout/tagout devices are conveyed to employees. The training will include the following:
Authorized employees will be trained in the following limitations of tags:
Retraining will be conducted whenever a periodic inspection reveals, or whenever there is reason to believe, that there are deviations from or inadequacies in the employee’s knowledge or use of an energy control device.
Supervisors will document that employee training has been accomplished.
Manufacturers of new machinery and equipment are legally required to make sure dangerous parts are safely guarded so that operators and others are protected from injury.
Old farm machinery is sometimes poorly guarded. Extra moving parts like wheels and pulleys may have been added for various uses. Original guarding may have been removed for maintenance and not put back.
There may be times when an operator may need to reach over, under, around or into a machine while it is running. If so, any moving parts or other hazards must be appropriately guarded from human contact.
OSHA's machine guarding standard addresses farm machinery hazards and specifies that employees be instructed at initial assignment and again at least once a year to:
A guard may be any shield, cover, casing, or physical or electronic barrier, intended to prevent contact between a hazardous machine part and any part of a person or a person's clothing.
Some of the hazards associated with machinery likely to cause injury include:
Once a hazard has been identified, assess the likelihood of the hazard resulting in injury to the operator or any other person, and the likely severity of any injury or harm.
Ensure machinery guards:
Utilize safe procedures for machinery guarding.
Protection for head, eyes, ears, skin, feet, hands, respiratory system, or body is necessary under certain hazardous working conditions in order to be in compliance with appropriate state safety laws. A general rule to follow is “use of personal protective equipment is required when there is a reasonable probability that injury or illness can be prevented by such equipment.”
Reasonable engineering controls, such as increased ventilation, are preferable to personal protective equipment. Where employees are required to wear personal protective equipment, the cost of the equipment should be considered a departmental expense.
Supervisors or instructors should consult with Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) or another qualified person to assess hazards in the areas where their employees work, to determine which of these areas may require the use of personal protective equipment, and to select the type and quality of the necessary equipment. It is the responsibility of all employees to wear personal protective equipment if it has been determined that its use is required. It is also the supervisor or instructor’s responsibility to ensure that workers, students, and visitors wear the protective equipment as specified.
An effort has been made to make the more common personal protective equipment readily available, either through the Chemistry Stores, Facilities Services Tool Room, or EH&S. The cost of this equipment may be charged against any approved departmental account. Those supervisors who do not have ready access to these campus store facilities may obtain personal protective equipment through any appropriate commercial safety equipment supplier. Supervisors should consult EH&S to ensure that the type of equipment selected is appropriate.
It is the responsibility of supervisors to provide training to their employees on identifying when the selected personal protective equipment is necessary, on how to use the equipment, and on proper care and maintenance of it.
The purpose of protective apparel is to provide protection for the body from chemical exposure, temperature extremes, and injury from sharp objects. Lab coats, chemical resistant aprons, and disposable tyvek suits are examples of protective apparel. Proper selection should be based on intended use.
Appropriate footwear that is effective in preventing or limiting injury shall be worn where employees are exposed to conditions which may cause foot injuries. As a general rule, low-heeled, closed-toe shoes shall be worn in all laboratory operations where there is a likelihood of exposure to spilled chemicals. Where it is determined by a supervisor and EH&S that employees are exposed to a moderate risk of foot injuries from falling objects or crushing actions, employees will be required to wear safety-toe footwear. This safety-toe footwear must meet the requirements and specifications in American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard Z41.1 for Safety-Toe Footwear. Employees will be required to obtain this safety-toe footwear on their own.
Eye injuries can translate into pain, loss of time, money and even your eyesight. Even a slight loss or impairment of your vision is a tremendous price to pay for a moment of carelessness. It is a dreadful reminder of what taking a risk can mean. Wear proper eye protection where eye protection hazards are apparent and use common sense. Become acquainted with proper first aid treatment for eye injuries and seek medical attention if there is an eye injury.
Spray cans are an increasing source of chemical eye injury, compounded by the force of contact. Whether containing caustics or irritants, spray cans must be carefully used and kept away from children.
Particles of rocks, soil, crop material or other foreign objects thrown from farm equipment that chop or grinds can cause unexpected eye injury to the operator or bystander. Keep machinery properly shielded. Keep away from the discharge path.
Eye injuries are more likely to occur when servicing farm equipment than when operating it. Simple hand tools can cause severe eye injuries. Wear industrial strength eye protection when using hand tools. Select the right tool for the job.
Protective eyewear should be carefully selected, fitted and cleaned. Protective eyewear should be reasonably comfortable and fit snugly without interfering with the movements or vision of the wearer. Protective eyewear should be durable, easily cleaned and capable of being disinfected. It should be kept clean and in good repair. To shield eyes from flying particles and objects, wear industrial-rated glasses or sun glasses and flexible or cushion-fitting ventilated plastic goggles that fit over ordinary eyeglasses. Adding side shields increases protection. Wear splash goggles when handling and applying agricultural chemicals. Employees can also wear welding goggles to protect their eyes from intense light and sparks. Full-face shields are another option for eye protection and can be worn comfortably. Store eye protection in clean, dust-proof containers.
Basic eye protection for the glasses or sunglasses wearer is a must. The glasses wearer should wear a face shield, goggles or spectacles with protective lenses. The glasses should be of industrial-quality with flame-resistant frames. Wearing outdated glasses or sunglasses offers no protection and may even be dangerous as they tend to splinter or shatter on impact.
Safety Glasses and Goggles Appropriate eye protection shall be provided to and worn by employees whose jobs expose them to eye hazards. The minimum acceptable form of eye protection is safety glasses that meet the requirements specified in ANSI Z87.1, “Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection.” Impact and/or chemical resistant goggles or face shields provide additional protection and should be worn over normal corrective lenses unless prescription safety glasses are worn. Several styles of safety glasses and goggles are available on campus. See Personal Protective Equipment Location.
Prescription Safety Glasses Normal prescription glasses do not provide adequate protection from injury to the eyes and do not meet ANSI eye protection specifications. In order to provide approved safety glasses for those employees who require corrective lenses, a prescription safety glasses program has been established and is coordinated by EH&S.
The employee, working with their supervisor, will contact EH&S and obtain the necessary forms. Please see the EH&S Safety Glasses Prescription Program for policy and procedures.
Proper first aid for eye injuries is critical. The method of first aid needed depends upon the type of injury sustained. Let natural tears wash out specks or particles in the eye. Try not to rub the eyes if possible. If this does not work, see a physician. For blows to the eye, apply cold compresses for 15 minutes and again each hour as needed to reduce pain and swelling. If the blow was hard enough to cause discoloration, see a physician. Internal damage could have occurred. For cuts and punctures to the eye, do not do anything to the eye but bandage it lightly and seek a physician at once.
Chemical burns on the eyes can be minor to very serious. Fresh water should be available for irrigating eyes anywhere chemicals are used. If the eye comes in contact with any chemical, it should be continuously flooded with water for at least 15 minutes. Do not put anything else in the eye. See a physician and take the label or container of the chemical involved.
Gloves provide protection for the hands and arms from chemicals, temperature extremes, and abrasion. Their proper selection and use is vital to their ability to protect. This is especially true when dealing with potential exposure to chemicals. It is important to remember that both the thickness and the type of material in the glove affect its ability to serve as a barrier against a specific chemical. Specifications regarding compatibility of glove materials with chemicals are available from EH&S.
Another factor in the proper selection of gloves is the wearer’s need for dexterity. It is often advisable to reduce the size and thickness of the glove to allow the user to perform manipulations safely. Caution is also required in using gloves around moving equipment. Gloves should not be worn by anyone whose hands are exposed to moving parts in which they could be caught.
Hearing protectors come in two forms: plugs and muffs. Each has specific advantages based on wearer comfort, work environment, and cost. Both are designed to reduce the noise to an acceptable level, although this ability is based on the level and type of noise and on the type of hearing protector.
Proper selection is important. According to OR-OSHA regulations, hearing protection must be available at no cost to all employees exposed to an 8-hour time weighted average (TWA) of 85 dBA (decibels, A-weighted). Employees exposed at 90 dB or greater must wear hearing protectors. Hearing protectors worn where noise is above this permissible level (90 dBA) must reduce the noise to a time-weighted average of 85 dBA or less.
It is the responsibility of supervisors to investigate whether their work environments expose employees to noise above the permissible level. EH&S can assist supervisors in this evaluation by performing sound level measurements and evaluations. If necessary, a hearing conservation program will be established which will include employee training and audiometric testing.
Nothing shall prevent the employee from wearing hearing protectors for reduction of annoyance noise or high-level noise of short duration. Hearing protectors should always be considered “personal” equipment and should not be used by other individuals, except for muffs that are adequately cleaned and sanitized.
Employees working in areas where there is possible danger of head injury from impact, falling or flying objects, or electrical shock and burns must wear protective helmets. The typical “hard hat” is the protective helmet of choice in most situations. Hard hats for short-term use can be obtained from the Facilities Services Tool Room.
The ability of respiratory protective equipment to provide adequate protection is based on proper selection and fit and on training in the use of the respirator. Therefore, respirators which are intended for protection against harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors must not be obtained or worn by employees without the approval of EH&S and in accordance with the Respiratory Protective Equipment Safety Program.
This program is managed by EH&S and has been established to comply with the OR-OSHA Regulations for Respiratory Protection. The specific requirements for the program are outlined in Safety Instruction 20, available from EH&S. EH&S maintains a supply of different types of respirators. If at all possible, respirators should be obtained through EH&S in order to ensure the proper selection and fit.
Persons should not be assigned to tasks requiring the use of respirators unless it has been determined that they are physically able to perform the work and use the equipment. The local physician shall determine what health and physical conditions are pertinent. The respirator user’s medical status should be reviewed annually.
Fall Protection and Harnessing (see also: elevated work surfaces, Chapter 10)
The following items are highly recommended to provide maximum protection of workers and ensure compliance with regulations and standards. All work environments are different, so the following are guidelines only. When establishing your own fall protection program, choose the correct system to meet your needs.
Warnings: Always read all instructions and warnings contained on and in the product packaging before using any fall protection equipment.
Inspection: All fall protection equipment should be inspected prior to use by following procedures outlined in the manufacturer’s brochure.
Training: All workers shall be trained by a competent person in the proper use of fall protection products.
Regulations: Understand all Federal, State, Local and Provincial regulations pertaining to fall protection before using the equipment.
Rescue Pre-Planning: Minimizing the time between a fall occurrence and medical attention of the workers is vitally important. A thorough rescue program should be established prior to using fall protection equipment. Employers should provide for a prompt rescue should a fall occur. Rescue procedures should be reviewed on a regular basis as part of the company's overall safety training program.
Equipment Preferences: If there are any doubts about which fall protection product to use, choose the following basic system:
Full-Body Harness with Sliding Back D-Ring Should a fall occur, the body harnesses would distribute the load throughout the body instead of concentrating the forces on the abdomen, as is the case with traditional body belts. The sliding back D-Ring will keep the worker in an upright position in the event of a fall, which allows the worker to remain as comfortable as possible while awaiting a rescue.
Shock-Absorbing Lanyards with Locking Snap Hooks Lanyards with built-in shock absorbers reduce fall arresting forces by 65-80% compared to forces generated by traditional lanyards. Locking snaps feature self-closing, self-locking keepers, which remain closed until unlocked and pressed open for connection or disconnection. This feature of locking snaps significantly reduces the possibility of accidental disengagement or "rollout."
Reliable Anchorage Points Anchor points or attachments must be capable of supporting 5000 lbs. per worker. If there is any doubt about the strength of the attachment point -- DO NOT ATTACH. Search for an alternative anchor point.
Injuries occur through:
Conduct safety audits of all farm jobs involving manual handling. Take note of heavy, stressful, awkward or repetitive activities. Check injury records to see which activities have caused most strain injuries. Look for difficult handling jobs that could be made easier.
Assess the likelihood of each identified hazard resulting in injury or harm. Use injury records to assess the potential risk of various tasks. If you consider there is a significant risk of serious injury, look for the best way to minimize the risk.
Correct body techniques
2. Do not use unapproved containers (drinking cups, bottled or canned food
containers, glass jars, etc.) to hold oil, industrial chemicals or solvents. All
chemical containers shall be labeled, closed when not in use and stored according to the manufacturer's instructions.
3. Wearing hand protection, eye protection, foot protection, protective clothing, hoods, head protection, respirators, or other safety equipment is mandatory in those areas and operations specified by your supervisor.
4. Wear clothing and footwear appropriate for the work you are hired to perform. Jewelry, rings, loose sleeves, ties, lapels, cuffs, tags, or other loose objects, which can be entangled in rotating machinery, shall not be worn. Ordinary shoes made of leather or other approved materials shall be worn as a minimum in locations where mechanical or manual work is done or where chemicals or other materials are handled. Slippers, canvas shoes, sandals, and shoes with open toes shall not be worn in such locations.
5. When assisting or observing work, which is hazardous, wear PPE that affords the same protection as that required for the person performing the work.
6. Do not disconnect alarms, warning devices, emergency equipment or similar systems without specific permission from your supervisor and the person responsible for the work area.
7. Do not ride in or on equipment not designed for transporting people.
8. Do not use makeshift devices to ascend or descend between different levels.
9. Do not work or stand under a suspended load. Stand clear of all objects being lifted by a hoist or other lifting equipment.
10. Do not attempt to operate industrial vehicles, cranes, or hoists unless you are authorized and trained to do so.
11. Do not load equipment beyond the prescribed capacity for its use.
12. Operate machines only when guards are in place and operational. Do not remove or alter any guard device.
13. Do not use machines that are danger-tagged. Switches, which are danger-tagged frequently, operate machines on which employees are working, and their lives may be endangered should the machine be started.
14. Stop power-driven machines or tools when performing inspection of work,
changing blades or accessories, discussing the work with others, or leaving the machine or tool unattended.
15. Never leave a piece of equipment or part in such a condition that the next employee could get hurt when he/she takes over where you left off.
16. Do not carry sharp objects in pockets or clothing.
17. Keep tools in good condition. Do not use chisels with mushroomed heads, dull saws, hammers with cracked handles, broken electric plugs, etc. Use the right tool for the job.
18. Do not use defective equipment or return a broken or defective tool to storage. The next employee who uses the tool may be seriously injured. Have the tool repaired.
19. Inspect wrenches often for worn or sprung jaws or other defects. Defective
wrenches should be taken out of service.
20. Do not remove or disengage guards provided by the manufacturer for any power tool.
21. All tools furnished to a worker or owned by workers are subject to inspections and approval by supervisors for safe design and construction for the work to be performed.
22. Do not use compressed air or gas for any other purpose than that for which it is provided. Do not use oxygen or any other gas from pressurized cylinders as a substitute for compressed air.
23. Workers are not permitted to use compressed air or gas to clean clothing they have on.
24. When cleaning surroundings or equipment with compressed air, the pressure must be reduced at the source to less than 30 psi or the nozzle used to reduce and end pressure to less than 30 psi when dead-ended or placed against an object.
25. Do not use explosive activated tools unless you are certified to do so.
26. Workers are not permitted to work in trenches five feet or more in depth without proper protection (see Excavation Operation Rules).
27. Check ladders before use. Do not use weak or defective ladders or ladders with missing steps, broken steps, cracked side rails, or broken hardware (see Elevated Work Surface Safety Rules).
28. Scaffolds shall be used according to the following rules:
The dangers in welding, cutting, heating and grinding should never be underestimated. Everyone doing these tasks should be properly trained to use the equipment safely and to understand the hazards involved.
Hazards associated with welding include:
Check each of the above areas for potential to cause an injury or hazardous incident. Refer to accident records, safe work procedures, training and the experience of operators doing hazardous work. If risk of injury or harm is identified, take steps to minimize or eliminate the risk.
Here are some suggestions for making welding safer. Appropriate protective clothing should include:
To prevent deterioration, all protective clothing and equipment should be stored carefully, and kept clean and in good working order.
Replace asbestos-containing gloves and insulation on handling equipment.
Leaking gases are a major hazard in gas welding. While fuel gas is usually recognized by its odor, oxygen leaks are potentially more dangerous because they are not easily recognized. Leaking oxygen can enrich the atmosphere so that a naked flame, cigarette, spark or electrical fault can be dangerous. Oils and greases may spontaneously ignite in the presence of pure oxygen.
Check to ensure electrical fittings, fixtures, plant and equipment, wiring, insulation, switches, power cords, plugs, earth wires, guarding, and welding equipment are in good condition and regularly maintained.
Look for shorting or sparking fittings. Avoid using electrical equipment in wet conditions. Wear safe footwear and clothing. For work on wires, plugs, switches, fuses and electrical plant, call the electrician.
Assess each identified hazard for likelihood and severity of possible injury or harm. If there is any risk of electric shock or electrocution, you should have a safe procedures to ensure the hazardous plant is put out of use and either isolated, or kept in a safe place until repaired or discarded.
The following suggestions will help to minimize or eliminate the risk of electric shock.
(1) "Firearm" means a weapon or device, by whatever name known, which is designed to expel a projectile by the action of black powder, smokeless powder, compressed air, gas, compressed spring or by any chemical action, and which is readily capable for use as a weapon.
(2) "Weapon" means any knife having a blade that projects or swings into position by force of a spring, by centrifugal force or by gravity and is commonly known as a switchblade knife; any hunting or target bow, any crossbow; any dirk, dagger, slingshot, metal knuckles; or any similar instrument by the use of which injury could be inflicted upon the person or property of any other person.
(3) "Destructive Device" means:
(a) A projectile containing an explosive or incendiary material or any other chemical substance; or
(b) A bomb, grenade, missile, or similar device or any launching device therefore.
(4) "University Sanctioned Use" means: R.O.T.C., OSU Pistol Club, OSU Rifle Club, or other uses approved by the Vice President for Finance and Administration.
(5) "Designated Storage Area" means: Areas designated by OSU Security Services as secure areas for storage of firearms, including the ROTC, OSU Pistol Club and OSU Rifle Club storage areas.
(1) Possession, use, or threatened use of firearms, ammunition, ammunition components including but not limited to smokeless powder, black powder, primers and percussion caps, dangerous chemicals, weapons, or destructive devices, are not allowed on property owned or controlled by Oregon State University except as expressly authorized by law or authorized in this rule. Possession of a concealed weapons permit does not constitute authorization by law for purposes of this rule.
(2) University students may bring firearms and ammunition to campus only in connection with a University sanctioned use.
(3) University employees may bring firearms and ammunition to campus only for University sanctioned use.
(4) While not in use, firearms must be stored at all times in a University designated storage area.
(5) Firearms, weapons, destructive devices or ammunition may be used on campus owned or controlled property only in connection with a University sanctioned use. Use must be consistent with the regulations of the organization conducting the sanctioned use.
(6) University staff in the Departments of Animal Sciences, Crop and Soil Sciences, Rangeland Resources, Horticulture, Fisheries and Wildlife, Branch Agricultural Experiment Stations, and College of Veterinary Medicine may possess a firearm while performing their authorized duties. When not in use, firearms must be removed from University property or stored in a designated storage area.
(7) Firearms must have a trigger guard in place before being brought on to University owned or controlled property. The trigger guard shall remain in place while the firearm is stored in the designated storage area.
(8) This rule does not apply to University family housing units or University-owned single family dwellings.
(1) Any person who violates this rule is subject to:
(a) Institutional disciplinary proceedings, if a student or employee;
(b) An order to leave the immediate premises or property owned or controlled by the University by a person in charge of University property.
(2) Persons failing to comply with an order by a person in charge to leave or to remain off the immediate premises or property owned or controlled by the University are subject to arrest for criminal trespass.
(3) The Vice President for Finance and Administration, the Director of Facilities Services, Vice Provost for Student Affairs, Coordinator of Student Conduct, Director of University Housing and Dining Services, Director of Conferences and Special Events, Director of the Memorial Union and Educational Activities, Manager of Security Services, and their designees are included among those "persons in charge" of University property for purposes of ORS 164.205(5) and this rule.
Lightning is the leading cause of farm fires. A well-installed and maintained lightning protection system routes lightning along a known, controlled course between the air and moist earth with over 90 percent effectiveness in preventing damage. Such systems can prevent damage to a building or any loss of income related to this damage.
Lightning protection systems consist of five parts: 1) air terminals, 2) conductors, 3) ground connections, 4) bonding, and 5) arrestors.
Livestock often are killed when they are near a fence or tree that receives a lightning discharge. Wire fences need to be grounded. Use galvanized steel posts at 150-foot intervals along the fence. It also is recommended that long runs of wire fence be interrupted. Lone trees should be either fenced off to keep livestock away from them or be protected by a lightning protection system.
In an approved lightning protection system the house, barns, sheds, silo and all other buildings are protected. All metal tracks, guys, lines and other metal bodies are bonded to the system as required. Arrestors are installed where needed. Lone trees are protected. Metal fences are properly grounded. Electrical entrance services have Underwriters Laboratory (UL) approved arrestors.
Local fire officials should be contacted for conformance with local codes as may apply.
It has been shown that an eight hour time-weighted average exposure to 85 decibels or greater can have unfavorable effects on hearing. The Hearing Conservation Program has been designed to reduce hearing loss at the College of Agricultural Sciences. This program consists of:
Person Protectors (approved earmuffs and ear plugs) shall be provided at no cost to the employee. Managers and supervisors must give their employees a choice of at least two different protectors. The supervisor must also provide proper fitting instructions, supervise the correct use and care of all hearing protectors, and ensure that employees wear the hearing protectors. Supervisors and managers can call EH&S’ industrial Hygienist, at (737-2274) for assistance in choosing proper hearing protection and in fit-testing employees.
Workers who are informed about hearing and its loss are likely to use hearing protection. Prior to working in a noisy area, employees should be trained in the basics of this Hearing Conservation Program. Initial training and annual training reminders will be posted on EH&S’ safety training record keeping documentation computer based server. Training programs should be repeated annually for each employee included in the hearing conservation program. EH&S and participating departments will arrange to teach employees about the effects of noise, the advantages and disadvantages of hearing protectors, and the purpose and process of audiometric testing.
An audiologist will perform the audiometric test at no cost to participating employees. The employee’s department is responsible for scheduling the initial exam (before the employee’s job assignment begins) and the annual audiometric exam. Questions regarding audiometric testing should be directed to EH&S.
Monitoring will be performed by an industrial hygienist or a trained person who will determine the amount of noise to which an employee is exposed. Management is required to notify employees exposed at or above an eight-hour average of 85 decibels of the results of monitoring. Monitoring shall be repeated whenever a change in production, process, equipment, or controls, increase noise exposures. However, the department must notify EH&S whenever that change occurs.
Noise monitoring shall also be conducted at least every three years in suspected areas. If employees or supervisors suspect that anyone may be exposed to high noise levels, they are obligated to contact EH&S and request noise monitoring.
As required by law, supervisors and EH&S shall maintain an accurate record of all employee’s noise level testing results for two years and audiometric test results until workers leave the University’s employ. The audiometric test records must include:
Additional questions and comments can be directed to EH&S (737-2273).
This program has been written to define Oregon State University (OSU) rules regarding the use of respirators for personal protection against airborne contaminants. The ability for a respirator to provide adequate protection is based on proper selection, fit and training. Respirators which are intended for protection against harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors must not be obtained or worn by employees without approval from Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) and in accordance with this program. This program is managed by EH&S and has been established to comply with the Oregon OSHA (OROSHA) regulations for respiratory protection. EH&S maintains a supply of different types of respirators. Respirators should be obtained through EH&S in order to ensure the proper selection and fit. Off campus facilities and other campus groups who have a large number of respirator users may obtain and fit test their own respirators after consultation with EH&S. At least annually, such groups should contact EH&S to discuss the efficacy of the program and any intended changes.
Every employee that wears a respirator on the job, whether required to wear one or not, shall have it properly fitted prior to initial use and at all times while performing an operation in a hazardous atmosphere. No employee shall use or be assigned to a task that requires the use of a respirator, unless it has been determined that the employee is physically able to perform under such conditions. This process will begin with the completion of a medical questionnaire available from EH&S. This questionnaire has been developed by physicians at the Corvallis Clinic in accordance with OR-OSHA regulations. The employee returns the questionnaire directly to the Occupational Medicine group at the Corvallis Clinic where it will be reviewed. A physical will be conducted for those employees who indicate potential medical problems on the medical questionnaire. After review, the clinic notifies EH&S of the employee's physical ability to wear a respirator.
A review of the employee's health status must be made annually by returning another questionnaire to the Clinic for review. Off campus sites can use other avenues of medical review that are equivalent. The department is responsible for paying all fees associated with this medical evaluation process.
The useful life of each respirator or cartridge will vary depending on the job duties and actual time in use. Each respirator has limitations; for details, refer to the manufacturer's instructions and recommendations. Air purifying respirators (disposable masks, half or full face cartridge respirators) will not be used in an environment that has less than 19.5% oxygen. To help determine which respirator is best suited for your operation, contact EH&S.
Each respirator user will be trained on how to use, check, and maintain respirators. This training will be provided by EH&S or by other groups in consultation with EH&S. The training of each respirator wearer will include the following:
A record will be kept of those employees who have been trained. Each user must understand and be able to apply the contents of this respirator program in the daily use, care, and safekeeping of the respirators.
Proper fitting of respirators is essential for employees to receive the protection for which the respirator is designed. Air, which passes around the face-piece of the respirator, rather than through it, is not filtered air. In order to ensure a good face seal, follow the manufacturer's fitting instructions and rules below:
A more elaborate fit test will be conducted by EH&S, or other approved groups as outlined in this document, for each employee when a new type of respirator is issued. The fitted respirator will be tested using the appropriate qualitative fit test. For example:
Respirators need to be maintained to ensure effectiveness and to prevent chemical and bacterial contamination. Proper maintenance of the respirator is the responsibility of each employee.
Respirator cleaning and disinfecting should be done by carrying out the following procedures:
Periodic evaluation of the effectiveness of the respirator program is essential to ensure that persons are being provided with adequate respiratory protection. The effectiveness of the respirator program should be evaluated at least annually by supervisors and EH&S. Corrective action should be taken to correct defects found in the program. Supervisors will monitor the effectiveness of this program by:
Perhaps more than any other occupational group, agricultural workers are exposed to a tremendous variety of environmental hazards that are potentially harmful to their health and well-being. Farmers and farm workers suffer from increased rates of respiratory diseases, noise-induced hearing loss, skin disorders, certain cancers, chemical toxicity, and heat-related illnesses. There are precautions that can be taken to minimize or eliminate these potential hazards.
Noise from farm tools and machinery can cause permanent hearing loss. Hearing loss may be temporary at first, but repeated exposure will lead to permanent damage. The damage can occur gradually over a number of years and remain unnoticed until it is too late. Some noises, such as gunshots, are so loud they can cause immediate permanent damage.
The permissible noise exposure standard for an eight hour day is 90 dB(A). The exposure standard for peak noise - for example gunshot - is 140 dB.
Some early warning signs of hearing loss include:
Typical farm noises that can damage hearing include:
If you have to shout above noise to be heard by someone a meter away, your hearing could be at risk. If noise cannot be reduced or removed at its source, and if there is no other way to separate people from damaging noise exposure, protective hearing equipment must be worn. Some farmers employ a noise consultant to take noise readings, assess hearing risks and recommend preventive measures.
You can reduce noise at its source by:
You can protect people from loud noise exposure by:
Once hearing is gone, it is gone forever, and hearing aids are of little help. They can make speech louder, but they cannot make it clearer.
Heat stress occurs when the body builds up more heat than it can handle. High temperatures, high humidity, sunlight, and heavy workloads increase the likelihood of heat stress. Use fans, ventilation systems, and shade whenever possible. A work area sometimes can be shaded by a tarp or canopy. Drink plenty of water before, during, and after work, and consider wearing cooling vests, which are garments with ice or frozen gel inserts.
Allow time to adjust to the heat and workload. People who are used to working in the heat are less likely to suffer heat stress. To become adjusted, do about 2 hours of light work per day in the heat for several days in a row; then, gradually increase the work period and workload for the next several days. An adjustment period of at least 7 days is recommended. If the warm weather occurs gradually, workers may adjust naturally.
Good health has long been acknowledged as one of the most critical elements to quality of life. The health of farm workers is a vital resource to protect. Following recommended precautionary measures to protect your health can go a long way to enhancing your quality of life.
Stress is a person's reaction to something considered a challenge or a threat. It is the emotional strain and pressure exerted on mental and physical being by oneself and others. When under stress, the body begins to "gear up" for action. This makes a person stronger and more alert, but it also takes more energy.
When "geared up" under stress, the body begins to do more of some things and less of others. Blood circulation increases, but digestion slows down or even stops. This could lead to major health problems, such as heart disease and ulcers. Other less severe but serious health problems include sleeplessness, headaches, and poor digestion.
Under stress, most people become so wrapped up in their own problems that they forget about everyone else. At the same time, they begin to take out their feelings on family members and friends. Stress quickly becomes a problem for the entire family--not just for the individual.
For a short time, stress may make someone a better, more efficient worker. But over the long haul, a person will wear down, becoming physically weaker and tiring more easily. A lack of concentration may result in poor management decisions. This can be especially dangerous when operating machinery.
Stress will have a snowball effect. All the problems it causes with personal health, family, and work will become new troubles. Without learning how to control it, stress can become an endless cycle.
Fight stress by taking care of yourself. Here are some tips from the American Heart Association:
Exceeding personal limitations is a factor in many farm accidents. Working in extreme heat or cold or attempting jobs beyond your physical capabilities elevates accident or illness risk.
Be ready for a safe day. This includes dressing right for the weather and job, getting the proper nourishment and adequate rest. Take work breaks to fight fatigue and extend your energy. Stop when you've had enough.
If it will be a struggle to lift or carry something, get help. Be sure you have the necessary competence (strength, skill and staying power) required by the job or activity to do it well and safely. Find the least taxing way to do things. Use motor power rather than muscle power when possible. Plan your work to make maximum use of your available energy.
Consider age and state of health in deciding what and how much you can do safely. Be willing to reassign jobs and activities that can no longer be done safely because of age or health problems. Exercise regularly for improved cardiovascular fitness, muscle tone, and to stay agile.
MSDs are injuries and illnesses that affect muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments, joints or spinal discs. Your doctor might tell you that you have one of the following common MSDs:
|Carpal tunnel syndrome
Tension neck syndrome
|Rotator cuff syndrome
Low back pain
|De Quervain's disease
Carpet layers' knee
Hand-arm Vibration Syndrome
Workplace MSDs are caused by exposure to the following risk factors:
Repetition. Doing the same motions over and over again places stress on the muscles and tendons. The severity of risk depends on how often the action is repeated, the speed of the movement, the number of muscles involved and the required force.
Forceful Exertions. Force is the amount of physical effort required to perform a task (such as heavy lifting) or to maintain control of equipment or tools. The amount of force depends on the type of grip, the weight of an object, body posture, the type of activity and the duration of the task.
Awkward Postures. Posture is the position your body is in and affects muscle groups that are involved in physical activity. Awkward postures include repeated or prolonged reaching, twisting, bending, kneeling, squatting, working overhead with your hands or arms, or holding fixed positions.
Contact stress. Pressing the body against a hard or sharp edge can result in placing too much pressure on nerves, tendons and blood vessels. For example, using the palm of your hand as a hammer can increase your risk of suffering an MSD.
Vibration. Operating vibrating tools such as sanders, grinders, chippers, routers, drills and other saws can lead to nerve damage.
Exposure to bloodborne pathogens may be encountered in teaching and research activities and the functions that support these activities. Recognizing that the risk of infection from exposure to bloodborne pathogens is real and to ensure the protection of students and staff, the following program and procedures are to be adopted and followed by all departments.
This Exposure Control Plan is intended to bring Oregon State University into compliance with the OR-OSHA regulations. This plan will serve as the written exposure control plan for OSU. Individual departments will provide supplemental information, as necessary, to act as addenda to this written program.
Students may be exposed to human blood or other potentially infectious material in classrooms, teaching laboratories, or instructional activity such as graduate research. Instructors are required to provide training to their students and to follow the work practices listed in this Exposure Control Plan, including the use of appropriate protective equipment, if the students are going to work with human blood or other potentially infectious material. Instructors must also follow the post-exposure evaluation procedures listed in this chapter if a student reports an exposure incident in a classroom, teaching laboratory, or other instructional activity.
The following exceptions to this Exposure Control Plan will apply to students.
The cost of the hepatitis B vaccine series may be charged to the student.
Department Review. The use of human materials in the classroom must be approved. Instructors must submit to their department heads a written explanation of the intended use of a human material in a classroom exercise. This proposal must include the following information.
The proposal will then be reviewed for approval by the department head. It is recommended that the proposal also be reviewed by the department faculty or the department curriculum committee. This approval is only required once and will apply to all instructors who teach the class and follow the procedures indicated in the proposal. Review and approval will only be required again if the procedures are changed.
When approved by the department head, a copy of the proposal is sent to Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) for review and record maintenance.
Review and approval by the department head is required for any research or instructional work with HIV or HBV. Extensive safety precautions must be taken when working with these materials. Therefore, any proposal for work with HIV or HBV must also be sent to EH&S for review.
IRB Review. All research work with human blood or other potentially infectious materials must be reviewed and approved by the OSU Institutional Review Board for the Protection of Human Subjects (IRB). Research proposals must be submitted to the Research Office for this review.
Tractors are the main cause of accidental deaths on farms. Over the years, many farmers, farm workers and others living on or visiting farms, have been killed or seriously injured falling from moving tractors, being run over by tractors, or being crushed when a tractor rolls sideways or backwards.
Regularly check for hazards relating to tractors, attached implements and field conditions. Hazard areas could include mechanical parts, operator training, other people, work procedures, unsafe jacking, climatic conditions, chemicals used, uneven terrain, and any other potential causes of an injury or a hazardous incident. Keep a record to ensure identified hazards are assessed and controlled.
Once a potential hazard has been identified, assess the likelihood of an injury or hazardous incident occurring. For example, risk to children playing near a tractor will vary, depending on what the tractor operator is doing, how close they are to the tractor and whether the operator knows they are there. Consider ways of minimizing risk.
People have been killed and seriously injured doing maintenance and repairs to farm tractors. Major hazards can occur when tractors are jacked and wheels are removed without safe working procedures. These risks are magnified on soil. Regular workshop maintenance of farm tractors and trailed implements can prevent hazardous incidents in the field.
When planning tractor maintenance, check the right equipment is available for safe jacking, removal of wheels and other tasks. People doing the job should be experienced, and there should be agreed safe procedures. Heavy lifting and carrying can cause strain injuries. Children should be kept away from tractor workshops. Field repairs present specific injury risks.
The greater the risk of an injury or a dangerous incident occurring, the more urgent the need for changes to be made to minimize or eliminate the risk.
Here are some ways of improving tractor maintenance safety.
Good safety habits are vital for anyone who operates a combine, corn picker or other grain-harvesting machine. Failure to observe safety practices can be fatal!
However, constant alertness is also necessary to prevent machinery accidents--accidents that often happen in spite of machinery that is designed for safety.
Machinery operators are not in top physical or emotional condition when they are tired, ill, worried, angry, or have their minds on something else. Accidents are most likely to happen under these conditions.
The combine operator is responsible not only for his safety but also for the safety of others who may be working on or just be near the machine. The operator must be aware of hazards and remain alert to situations that are potentially dangerous. This includes pre-operational checks, starting, transporting, towing, operating, field repair and maintenance and stopping the combine.
To make sure drive units do not cause injury when the machine is started again, do the following when stopping the combine.
REMEMBER: The hydraulic drive unit is not an effective parking brake.
Source: Fundamentals of Machine Operation - Combines, Deere & Co.
Large hay bales, some weighing up to 800 kg, have killed or seriously injured many farm workers. Bales, both round and rectangular, can fall on tractor and forklift operators, topple off stacks and vehicles on workers or bystanders, and collapse when stacks fail.
Look for hazards relating to:
Check each hazard that has been spotted to assess:
List all the hay baling and stacking hazards spotted, and number them in order of priority, so that those most likely to cause injury or harm can be tackled first.
Because most large hay bales can kill or seriously injure anyone they fall or roll on, any risk of a hazardous incident should be assessed as requiring urgent attention. And as children are the most vulnerable, consider child injury risks top priority.
While the skilled operator of tillage equipment avoids errors with very little conscious thought, accident studies show that hurrying and human error are responsible for or are involved in the vast majority of equipment accidents. An operator must have an understanding of the function, operation and limitations of the equipment he/she is operating and the operator must resist the temptation to be hurried into an accident.
The term 'Ag bike' refers to all motorbikes with two, three and four wheels, used for farm work. Three and four wheelers are also known as 'all terrain vehicles' or ATVs. Three-wheeled ATV’s are illegal and their use and operation is strictly prohibited.
Most Ag bike injuries result from lack of training and experience, speed, uneven or unfamiliar terrain, humps, logs, rocks, embankments, carrying a passenger or an unbalanced load, inadequate protective clothing and unsafe driving. Those aged between 10 and 24 have a significantly higher risk of injury on ATVs.
Ag bike injuries are predominantly to legs, followed by injuries to spine, arms and head. Three and four wheeler spills often result in the rider being pinned beneath or rolled on by the vehicle. Assess all use of Ag bikes for likelihood and possible severity of injuries. Develop safe use procedures to match the risk.
The following suggestions will help minimize risks.
Farm machinery uses power to do work. This creates many possible hazards for both operators and bystanders. Even though manufacturers take many steps to make machinery safe, all hazards cannot be removed. Minor and serious injuries can occur when workers are not paying close attention, taking shortcuts, ignoring warnings or failing to follow safety rules. The wide variety of warning, caution and instructional decals placed on machinery are there for your safety.
There are many different types of farm machinery, but they all have similar characteristics and hazards. Not all these hazards can be completely shielded, so farmers must use caution when operating them.
Shear points exist when the edges of two objects move toward or next to each other closely enough to cut relatively soft material.
Cutting points happen when a single object moves forcefully or rapidly enough to cut. They can be found on many types of crop cutting equipment, such as forage harvester heads and sickle bars, and grain augers.
Shear and cutting points are hazards because of their cutting force. They often move so rapidly that they may not be visible, so it is easy to forget that they are there.
Pinch points exist when two objects move together, with at least one of them moving in a circle. They are common in power transmission devices, such as belt and chain drives, feed rolls and gear drives.
Fingers, hands and feet can be caught directly in pinch points or they may be drawn into the pinch points by loose clothing that becomes entangled. Contact may be made by brushing against unshielded parts or by falling against them.
Shields cover most of these areas to prevent accidents, but on e caught, these machines move too fast for someone caught to get out of a pinch point.
Be aware of these hazards and wear clothing that cannot be caught. Never reach over or work near rotating parts.
Turn off machinery to work on it and replace any missing shields.
Any exposed, rotating machine component is a potential wrap point. Protruding shaft ends can also become wrap points.
A cuff, sleeve, pant leg or just a thread can catch on a rotating part and result in serious injury. Entanglement with a wrap point can pull a person into the machine or wrap their clothing so tightly the person is crushed or suffocated. A person can even lose their balance and fall into other machine parts.
Even a perfectly round shaft can be a hazard if there is enough pressure to hold clothing against the shaft. Shafts that are not round increase the hazard significantly. Universal joints, keys and fastening devices also can snag clothing.
Be aware of potential wrap points and shield those that can be shielded. Place warnings on those that cannot be covered or paint them a bright color.
Crush points exist when two objects move toward each other, or when one object moves toward a stationary object. Hitching tractors to implements may create a potential crush point. Failure to block up equipment safely can result in a fatal crushing injury. Workers need to be careful so they do not get caught in crush point areas.
Crushing injuries most commonly occur to fingers at the hitching point. Wait until the tractor has stopped before stepping into the hitching position. The head or chest of an operator may be crushed between the equipment and a low beam or other part of a farm building. Usually, these accidents occur when the machine is operating in reverse.
Tree limbs are also potential hazards.
The heavier a revolving part, the longer it will continue to rotate after power is shut off.
Rotary mower blades, baler flywheels and various other farm machinery components will continue to move after power stops.
Workers must allow time for these wheels or blades to stop before approaching them. This may take as long as two and a half minutes.
Pull-in points usually occur when someone tries to remove plant material or other obstacles that have become stuck in feed rolls or other machinery parts. Always shut off the power before attempting to clear plugged equipment.
Springs are commonly used to help lift equipment, such as shock absorbers, and to keep belts tight. Springs may harbor potentially dangerous stored energy. Know what direction a spring will move and how it might affect another machine part when released, and stay out of its path.
Hydraulic systems store considerable energy. They lift implements, such as plows, change the position of implement components, such as a combine header or bulldozer blade, operate hydraulic motors and assist in steering and braking.
Careless servicing, adjustment or replacement of parts can result in serious injury. High-pressure blasts of hydraulic oil can injure eyes or other body parts by burning or penetrating the tissue.
Leaks are a serious hazard. Never inspect hydraulic hoses with your hands because a fine jet of hydraulic fluid can pierce the skin. Get medical attention quickly, or you could lose that part of the body that was injected. Use a piece of cardboard to test the hose for leaks.
Follow the instructor's manual when servicing hydraulic systems. Make certain the hydraulic pump is turned off. Lower the attached equipment to the ground and confirm that load pressure is off the system. Treat hydraulic fluid as flammable liquid. Avoid open flames and sparks if hydraulic fluid has been spilled.
Being aware of these machinery hazards is the first step to prevent accidents. Following manufacturer's guidelines and working cautiously will help to produce a safer working environment for everyone.
Safelty Training Manual
College of Agricultural Sciences
Oregon State University
Injuries from cattle relate to a number of factors - inadequate yard design, lack of training of handlers, unsafe work practices, and the weight, sex, stress factor and temperament of animals.
Here are some suggestions for improving safety in cattle handling.
First Aid Emergencies: If a person is bitten, scratched or seriously injured by any farm animal, follow proper first aid and medical procedures. First aid procedures are listed in the appendix at the end of this safety manual.
Pig handlers face injuries from the size, strength and temperament of the animals they tend. Injuries may also relate to training of handlers, the safe design of pens, lanes and other yarding, and the administering of drugs and chemicals. Noise in pig sheds can reach levels that require hearing protection.
Check the safety of pens, floors and lanes, handling and restraining of animals, safety training for new and young workers, safe lifting methods, safe use of chemicals, and protection from diseases carried by pigs. Study worker injury records for evidence of hazardous jobs and situations.
Assess whether any of the hazards identified are likely to cause injury or harm, and base safety decisions on the likelihood and possible severity of the injury or harm.
The following suggestions are to help minimize or eliminate the risk of injury or harm in pig handling:
First Aid Emergencies: If a person is bitten, scratched or seriously injured by any farm animal, follow proper first aid and medical procedures. First aid procedures are listed in the appendix at the end of this safety manual.
Manual handling injuries - wear and tear to the back, shoulders, neck, torso, arms and legs - are the main problems to avoid when handling sheep. Awkward postures, working off balance, and strenuous, repetitive and sudden stress movements can cause immediate or gradual strain injuries and conditions.
Assess each identified hazard for the likelihood of injury or harm. Assess also the likely severity of injuries or harm. The more likely and serious the potential injury, the more urgent it is to minimize the risks.
The following suggestions are to help farmers and sheep handlers make sheep handling safer:
People working with sheep should:
First Aid Emergencies: If a person is bitten, scratched or seriously injured by any farm animal, follow proper first aid and medical procedures. First aid procedures are listed in the appendix at the end of this safety manual.
Look for hazard related to lighting, electricity, slips and trips, training and supervision of new and young workers, animal behavior, machinery guarding, heavy lifting and carrying.
Check each identified hazard for likelihood and severity of injury or harm. The greater the risk and severity, the more urgent it is to minimize or eliminate the risk. Consider appropriate changes and make sure new hazards are not created.
The following are to help minimize risks in dairy farming.
Activities that can lead to back strain injuries include:
To reduce the risk of back strain injuries,
Accidents in the handling, use and storage of gasoline, gasohol, diesel fuel, LP-gas and other petroleum products (solvents, paint thinners and naphtha) can result in serious fires and explosions. The chances of fire or explosion can be reduced by following safety precautions and by keeping fuel storage facilities in top condition.
Gasoline, diesel fuel, LP gas, degreasing solvents, paint solvents and certain paints are among flammable materials found on most farms. Keep these liquids away from open flames and motors that might spark.
Keep all petroleum storage and handling equipment in good condition and out of reach of children. Inspect for leaks, deterioration or damage. Never store fuel in food or drink containers.
When transferring farm fuels, bond the containers to each other, and ground the one being dispensed from to prevent sparks from static electricity.
Clean up spills right away and put oily rags in a tightly covered metal container. Change your clothes immediately if you get oil or solvents on them.
In addition, watch out for empty containers that held flammable or combustible liquids. Vapors might still be present. Store these liquids in approved containers in well-ventilated areas away from heat and sparks.
Be sure all containers for flammable and combustible liquids are clearly and correctly marked. Read and heed directions on all product containers, noting flammability and safety precautions.
Do not keep gasoline inside the home or transport it in the trunks of automobiles or recreation vehicles.
Proper Storage and use of flammable liquids can significantly reduce the possibility of accidental fires and injury to employees. To minimize risk to life and property, the requirements of NFPA 30 & 321, OAR 473-004-0720 and OSHA Standard 1910.106 have been implemented.
Flammable and combustible liquids require careful handling at all times. The proper storage of flammable liquids within a work area is very important in order to protect personnel from fire and other safety and health hazards.
Be cautious during refueling. Fires and explosions can happen. Besides being a fire hazard, spilled fuel can cause irritation and discomfort if it contacts the skin. Breathing an excess of fuel vapor often causes dizziness and headache.
When arriving to refuel, drive up to the fuel pump or storage tank slowly. Be careful not to bump it. Turn off the engine, and extinguish smoking materials. If the engine is hot, allow it to cool for a few minutes. Position yourself so you can refuel without slipping or becoming fatigued. Remove the fuel cap slowly and allow the pressure to dissipate.
Avoid over filling. Allow any spilled fuel to evaporate before starting the engine. After releasing the nozzle valve to shut off fuel flow, keep the nozzle in the filler opening a few moments to allow it to empty. Check vents to be sure they're not clogged, and replace the filler cap. Then lock up the pumps so children, or other unauthorized persons cannot pump fuel.
Refuel small equipment outside -- never in an enclosed area. A funnel will make the job easier when using a safety can.
Wipe up spills and allow the excess to evaporate before starting the engine. Before resuming work, put the safety can back into safe storage.
An aboveground storage facility is cost effective. The tanks are movable and ground water or limited flooding has little effect on them.
Aboveground storage tanks must be sturdy and designed for fuel storage. They should be 40 feet or more from buildings. A tank too near a burning building could explode and spread the fire. Mount a tank elevated for gravity discharge on sturdy supports placed on a firm, level surface. Keep the area clear of weeds and trash to reduce fire risk. Remind machinery operators to stay away from the support structure and to not bump it when pulling up to refuel.
Unless tanks are located in a shaded spot or have overhead canopies to shield the sun, evaporation losses can be sizable. Use a pressure-vacuum relief valve (rather than the standard vented cap).
A labeled safety container is made of heavy-gauge metal and has a cap that automatically closes to prevent a spill if the can is dropped or tipped over. The squat shape makes a safety can difficult to tip. A pressure-relief valve opens when vapor pressure inside the can reaches three to five pounds per square inch. A flash-arresting screen in the filler opening and pouring spout will reduce the possibility of a spark which could cause a fire or explosion.
Label fuel containers according to their contents. Do not risk confusing diesel fuel and gasoline. Paint gasoline cans red and diesel cans green. Store cans in a cool, well-ventilated place, away from living quarters and ignition sources.
The fire or explosion hazard with LP gas usually involves leaks or failures in the system, improper transfer of liquid from one tank to another, or accidents where tanks or lines are ruptured. Also, an LP tank involved in a building, trash or tractor fire can greatly intensify such a fire or even explode.
Large LP storage tanks should be at least 50 feet from the nearest building and 20 or more feet from other aboveground fuel tanks. Provide and maintain solid foundations to support LP-gas tanks so they won't settle or tip and break or damage connections.
Equip the storage tank with a liquid-fill hose and a vapor-return hose. If the vapor escapes into the atmosphere, a fire or explosive danger is created. Therefore, when you fill your fuel tank, the vapor from the top should be fed back into the storage tank.
Be alert for leaks in the LP-gas system. Protect gauges and regulators from weather and dirt. If you smell gas, turn off valve(s) at the tank(s). Open windows and doors to ventilate the building, and don't switch on anything electrical. Get everyone out, and call a technician to find and fix the leak.
Keep all equipment used for petroleum storage and handling in good condition. Watch for leaks, deterioration or damage. Make needed repairs or replace faulty components immediately. Keep cap vents clean and free, and tank and safety can pressure-relief valves functional.
If fuel is spilled on your clothing, go outside, away from any ignition source, and allow the clothing to dry. If more than a little was spilled, remove the garment, and wash the fuel from your skin to avoid irritation.
When siphoning fuel, use a pump. Never use your mouth. A mouthful of gasoline or diesel fuel could be fatal, especially if it gets into your lungs. Also avoid excessive inhalation of gasoline vapor.
When servicing machinery, check the fuel system for leaks. Double check connections to be sure they are secure and leak-free after changing fuel filters or performing other work requiring disconnecting or removing a fuel line or fuel system component.
Turn off oil heaters before refueling. Make sure the filler cap is replaced and tightened. Set portable heaters away from combustibles where they cannot be tipped over.
Motor oil and grease are considerably less flammable than engine fuels, but they will burn. Keep them away from ignition sources.
Gasoline containers are dangerous. They contain a very flammable
substance that can ignite and burn very easily. Extreme care should be used in
the handling and storing of these containers.
Hydrocarbons (gasoline) build up static electricity as they are stirred or agitated,
Always refill gas cans while they are in contact with the ground, and never while in the trunk of a car or in the bed of a truck. Those charged particles are looking for a place to discharge their stored energy and cannot do so safely because the plastic container or a truck bed liner act as an insulator.
Gasoline should always be dispensed into an APPROVED METAL CONTAINER
DESIGNED AND LABELED FOR THE STORAGE AND TRANSPORTATION
OF GASOLINE. If in a pinch, use an APPROVED plastic container designed and labeled for the storage and transport of gasoline.
NEVER USE bleach jugs or glass jars to carry gasoline under any circumstance!!!
So now you have your shiny new metal gasoline container and feel all warm and
fuzzy that you are doing the right thing. I'm very pleased with you so far and I will
let you get back to riding after a few more pointers.
Only refuel your engine after it is cool.
Many people have been burnt and scarred for life by gasoline spilling on a hot
engine during the refueling process. We get so used to the convenience of
gasoline, coupled with the fact that we use it every day in our cars that we forget
the energy and danger that a gas can holds.
Safelty Training Manual
College of Agricultural Sciences
Oregon State University
Chapter 5 - Agri-Chemicals
Safety with pesticides should be a concern of everyone involved with these chemicals. Although pesticides provide real benefits, they can also be dangerous if mishandled or misused. An accidental death from pesticides is a rarity, but skin disorders and health problems are not. Additionally, improper handling or use of pesticides can result in harmful effects to the environment.
Pesticide safety begins with the selection of the proper product and proceeds through the transportation, storage, mixing, loading, application, and disposal of the pesticide and its container. Read the label.
Reading and understanding the label before purchase is the first consideration. The product name provides recognition. It is generally designed to attract you (so you will make a purchase) and to promote product identification. It helps you to find the product when you return to make additional purchases.
The terms "active ingredient" and "percent" give you more precise information. The active ingredient is the material, which controls the pest. Should product "A" have two percent active ingredient, and product "B" four percent, product "B" has twice the amount of actual pesticide and it will be twice as strong. Likewise, if product "C" has two pounds of active ingredient per gallon, it has twice the active ingredient of product "D" if it contains only one pound per gallon. Remember, this comparison applies only when two products have the same active ingredient. Other factors, however, may determine the concentrate of the product best suited for your needs.
There are many other items of information to study on the pesticide label before you can make an intelligent purchase.
Look for this number on every product. It is your assurance that the product has been approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and should be safe and effective when used as directed on the label. This means you must read the rest of the label before making your purchase.
Before you buy any pesticide make sure the product is labeled for use against the pest, on the plants or animals, in the environment where you plan to use the product. A product may be labeled to control a pest on nursery plants, but not for the same pest on fruits, vegetables, or house plants in the home.
Pesticides carry one of three precautionary words or phrases.
The products most toxic to humans will be labeled "DANGER-POISON" and display a skull and crossbones. These products are extremely toxic in the form found in the container, before they are diluted. Only a few drops could cause severe burns, serious health problems, or even death.
Products labeled "WARNING" are less toxic to humans, but extreme care must be exercised in their use, particularly before they are diluted.
The word "CAUTION" will appear on those pesticides that are the least harmful when used as directed. These products, however, can still cause serious injury or health problems, and even death. You will notice that pesticides carrying even the least toxic message, the word "CAUTION", often carry the statement "KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN."
LD or lethal dose value is another term used in describing pesticide toxicity. An LD/50 indicates the amount of active ingredient in the pesticide formulation that would be lethal to 50 percent of a population of test animals. The LD amount is expressed in milligrams of toxic product per kilogram of body weight. Thus, a pesticide with an LD/50 of 50mg/kg is ten times more toxic than a pesticide with an LD/50 of 500mg/kg.
Classes of Pesticide Toxicity and their Oral Lethal Doses.
|Signal Word||Toxicity||Lethal (Oral) Dose (160 lb man)**|
|Danger Poison*||Highly toxic||Few drops to 1 teaspoon|
|Warning||Moderately toxic||1 teaspoon to 1 Tablespoon|
|Caution||Low toxicity||1 ounce to more than 1 pint|
|* Skull and crossbones symbol included.
** Less for a child or person weighing less than 160 lbs.
This is information about first aid and can be limited or detailed. It may give advice on what to do if the product is accidentally swallowed, inhaled, or gotten into the eyes or onto the skin.
The statement may tell you that you need to purchase additional equipment and supplies before you can use the product safely and be able to deal with accidents effectively.
You need to know what to do if someone is accidentally poisoned by the pesticide. Be sure you understand the Statement of Practical Treatment.
Have materials available to administer first aid. Always call a doctor or emergency room immediately if an accident occurs.
Make sure the doctors are given the pesticide label; it will help the doctor prescribe immediate correct treatment. Emergency telephone numbers, including that of the nearest poison control center, should be posted near all telephones.
Don't purchase the pesticide if you cannot store it properly or dispose of unwanted quantities safely. Seek an agreement with the dealer that unopened, unused quantities can be returned for credit. Purchasers of large quantities of pesticides might even obtain an agreement on the return of empty pesticide containers.
Some pesticides are classified as "restricted use." These pesticides can be purchased and applied by state-certified licensed applicators only. Restricted use pesticides are identified by a prominent restricted use statement located above the brand name on the front of the label. Pesticides that are not classified as restricted use are considered unclassified and can be purchased and used in accordance with the label by the general public.
You can make intelligent purchases of pesticides by completely reading and understanding the label. A product you have chosen wisely will do the job economically and safely. It is the user's legal responsibility to thoroughly read and follow label instructions. Remember, by reading the directions and warnings before you purchase the pesticide you can protect yourself, your family and the environment from serious accidents.
There are three ways for pesticides to enter the body:
All three methods can cause immediate danger.
Inhaled pesticides are absorbed rapidly into the body through the thin membranes of the lungs. Wearing a properly-fitted respirator with the proper cartridge or canister is very important. Replace the canister or cartridge after every few hours of use, or whenever the odor or taste of the pesticide is detected, or when breathing becomes difficult. Working upwind of the pesticide dust, mists, and vapor, and not smoking pesticide-contaminated cigarettes are other safety practices to follow.
Although breathing pesticides is the most rapid way for them to enter the blood stream, most acute poisonings are the result of swallowing pesticides. It happens more often. Swallowed or ingested, they are absorbed more slowly and less completely than by breathing. Establishing good work habits, including washing hands before eating, and not eating, smoking, or drinking while working with pesticides will reduce the chances of ingesting pesticides. It must be emphasized that pesticides should never be stored in anything other than their original containers. Putting pesticides in containers that originally held food or drink has resulted in many accidental poisonings.
All pesticides may enter the body by absorption through the skin and eyes, the most common method of accidental poisoning. The eyes, stomach, groin, arms, hands, and forehead are the likely areas for absorption. Most absorption is through the hands and forearms during the handling, mixing, and loading operations.
The importance of protective gloves and long sleeves can not be overemphasized. Be extremely careful to see that open wounds, sores, or blisters are not exposed to pesticides. Wearing the proper protective clothing and equipment, changing and laundering immediately after working with pesticides, and showering thoroughly with detergent or soap will reduce the danger of absorption.
Should you spill pesticides onto your body, the first two minutes are critical. Immediate removal of your clothing and a long soapy shower are required.
Many of the early symptoms of mild pesticide poisoning are similar to the symptoms of the flu, heat stroke, exhaustion or the common cold. However, if these symptoms occur while working, or shortly after you have been working, with pesticides contact your supervisor, nurse, or doctor.
The new Worker Protection Standard (WPS) requires that all agricultural workers and pesticide handlers be trained about pesticide safety. It is the employers' responsibilities to ensure that agricultural workers and pesticide handlers have received the pesticide safety training, as described below.
Agricultural workers are those who perform hand labor tasks, such as weeding, planting, cultivating, and harvesting, or other tasks involved in the production of agricultural plants on farms or in greenhouses, nurseries, or forests.
Pesticide handlers are those who handle agricultural pesticides (mix, load, apply, clean or repair equipment), or perform other tasks that bring them into direct contact with pesticides.
Each agricultural worker and pesticide handler must be trained about pesticide safety except those who:
Be aware that different WPS training programs are required for agricultural workers and for pesticide handlers. Training materials for both programs are available from EPA, Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, or your county extension office.
NOTE: Prior to October 20, 1997, workers must be trained about general pesticide safety before they accumulate more than 15 separate days of entry into treated areas.
Handlers and workers must be trained at least once every 5 years, counting from the end of the month in which the previous training was completed.
The WPS safety training requirements for agricultural workers and pesticide handlers became effective on January 1, 1995.
The pesticide safety training materials for workers and handlers must be either:
WPS worker safety training must cover the following 11 concepts/topics:
NOTE: WPS worker training materials must use nontechnical terms that the worker can understand.
WPS training for pesticide handlers must include the following topics/information:
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Hazard Communication Standard requires that all employees be apprised of all hazards, including pesticides, to which they are exposed. This includes all handlers, mixers, loaders and applicators of pesticides.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires that restricted use pesticides can only be purchased by and applied by trained and state-certified, licensed applicators or others under their close supervision
Pesticides should never be transported inside the passenger compartment of an automobile or truck cab; put them in the trunk or in the back of the truck. Never transport them where they could come in contact with people, groceries, livestock feed, or other products, which might become contaminated.
When transporting pesticides in a truck, see that they are secured to prevent spillage or loss due to sudden starts, stops, turns, etc. Should there be an accident or spill immediately inform the local police and fire officials of the quantity and name of the pesticide involved. Even small spills or releases, particularly of extremely hazardous pesticides, must be reported to the State Emergency Response Commission (SERC) (904-488-1320) and your Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC).
Applicators of pesticides, particularly in populated areas, must take special precautions to secure products transported to the application site. Allowing containers of pesticides to remain unattended on the back of an open truck is inviting an accident, and a costly lawsuit.
Commercial transporters of pesticides must meet special requirements: vehicles must carry placards, bills of lading, labels of the product, etc.
Those businesses with large quantities of pesticides to store should have a separate building for this purpose. In addition to the above features, this facility should also include the following characteristics.
Mixing and loading pesticides are among the most dangerous tasks with these products, because it is at this time that people are working with open containers of concentrated pesticides.
For this reason, individuals employed to perform this activity should be well-informed of the dangers involved, and work under the close supervision of a properly certified, licensed applicator whenever handling restricted-use pesticides.
Mixing and loading should never be done without a full understanding of the pesticide label and should always be done with the use of all recommended personal protective equipment. The label will identify the dangers involved and the precautions to follow. It may indicate the signs and symptoms of poisoning, and recommend first aid practices should one be exposed to the product.
Before you begin to mix, load, and apply pesticides, and after you understand the label directions, make certain you have taken the following precautions.
When applying pesticides, applicators are not exposed to the same high concentration of pesticide as they are during the mixing and loading operation. However, the time-length of exposure is much longer, thus the cumulative exposure may be equal to or greater than that during the mixing/loading operation.
Pesticide applications are made with everything from hand sprayers and dusters, to irrigation equipment, to large airblast grove sprayers and aircraft. Whatever equipment is used, many of the safety precautions are the same.
Major problems exist in the disposal of pesticides and pesticide containers. These are: the disposal of excess quantities of mixed pesticides, disposal of rinsates, the disposal of unwanted quantities of obsolete, deteriorated or unwanted pesticides, and the disposal of containers.
Accidental spills can happen in transport, in storage, or in the mixing, loading, or application activities. Many labels describe what actions should be taken should a spill occur; if the label contains such directions, follow them.
If the spill or release is a pesticide classified as an extremely hazardous substance (EHS) and exceeds the reportable quantity (RQ) you must follow the procedures detailed in SARA TITLE III, the Community Right-to-Know Law, requires that these spills or releases be reported immediately - within fifteen minutes - to the local fire department and the Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) or the State Emergency Response Committee (SERC).
The following are practices to follow with all spills.
The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) has established regulations requiring submission of reports of spills, above certain amounts. All large spills of a hazardous chemical such as a pesticide (more than one gallon liquid or one pound solid) must be reported promptly to EH&S. That office will make the report to DEQ, LEPC, or SERC if necessary.
If the spill is liquid then activated charcoal, absorptive clay, vermiculite or sawdust should be used to soak up all the material. Sufficient absorbent material should be used to soak up the liquid. The material should then be swept up and/or shoveled into a leakproof drum. Saturated soil should also be placed into drums.
It may be necessary to neutralize the area. Again, check the label. Hydrated lime, lye, ammonia, sodium hypochlorite and detergents are frequently recommended.
Supplies of absorbent and neutralizing materials should be available in the storage or mixing/loading area at all times, along with the tools and other supplies necessary for a clean-up.
The contaminated materials may be hazardous wastes. In many cases they are not usable and must be shipped to an incinerator or sanitary landfill approved for disposal of hazardous wastes. This type of disposal is costly, therefore, it is important to follow all safety precautions to prevent spills.
Under the EPA's Worker Protection Standard (WPS) nursery and greenhouse operations are required to provide workers with specific protections. These include safety training for pesticide handlers and general workers, the posting of application information in a central area, the distribution and use of personal protective equipment (PPE), etc. There are, however, special requirements, which apply only to nurseries and greenhouses. The following outlines these special restrictions.
Nurseries are required under WPS to follow special restrictions during applications in terms of who can enter treated areas. Basically, non-pesticide handlers are not allowed into treated areas during applications and in certain circumstances are not allowed within specific distances from the treatment area. Once the application is completed, workers may not enter the treated area during the Restricted Entry Interval (REI) for the materials applied. Workers, however, are allowed to enter bordering areas that were restricted during the application.
The special entry restrictions apply only during the application of a pesticide and are grouped based on the method of application used.
The first category covers materials applied aerially, or in an upward direction, or using a spray pressure greater than 150 psi. During these applications non-pesticide handler workers are not allowed in the treated area and within 100 feet surrounding the entire treatment zone. This restriction also applies for fumigant, smoke, mist, fog and aerosol applications.
The second category for restriction applies to materials that are applied in a downward direction using a spray pressure between 40 and 150 psi, or applied as a fine spray, or from a height greater than 12 inches above the tops of plant material. For these situations, non-pesticide handler workers are not allowed in the area and within 25 feet surrounding the entire treatment zone.
This requirement also applies if the pesticides label requires the applicator to wear a respirator during applications.
The final category covers any other method of application such as drenches, etc. In these situations non-pesticide handler workers are not allowed in the treated area.
Greenhouses are also required under WPS to follow special requirements during and after applications in terms of sign posting and who can enter treated areas. The posting of signs on greenhouse doors during all applications and REI's is mandatory. Entry restrictions are based on how a material is applied.
If the pesticide is applied as a fumigant, no non-pesticide handler is allowed in the entire greenhouse, including any adjacent structure that cannot be sealed off from the treated area until ventilation criteria are met.
If the material is applied as a smoke, fog, mist or aerosol, or if the label requires the use of a respirator during applications, non-pesticide handlers must vacate the entire enclosed area during treatment until ventilation criteria are met.
If any other application method is used and the material is applied from a height greater than 12 inches above the tops of plants, or is applied as a fine spray, or using a pressure greater than 40 psi, the treatment area and 25 feet surrounding the treatment zone must be vacated until the application is completed.
For all other application techniques only the treated area must be vacated until the application is complete.
After the application is complete, if the above criteria have been met, workers may enter treated areas during the REI if they wear appropriate PPE. However, what is considered to be the treated area during the REI may vary.
If the application involved a fumigant, there are no entry restrictions once ventilation criteria have been met. If the material was applied as a smoke, mist, fog, or aerosol, the treated area is the entire enclosed area. For all other application methods the area physically treated with a pesticide is restricted from entry.
In certain situations, workers are not allowed into treated areas until specific ventilation criteria for the greenhouse are met (see above). In these situations, employers must make sure that one of the following criteria are met:
Remember, no workers may enter the areas treated in the greenhouse until these have been met.
Modern lightweight chains saws have become common on farms, as well as in urban areas. They are frequently used for cutting and trimming trees, cutting fireplace wood, and cleaning storm damage.
The principal danger in chain saw use is in getting cut by the saw blade. It is important to realize that the modern chain saw cuts through material very quickly, and as it breaks through it can cut you. Wearing protective gear will safeguard you from cutting injuries. There are a number of other factors that can make chain saws hazardous.
Wind can create serious hazards when cutting down trees. It can come up or change direction unexpectedly and cause a tree to fall in the wrong direction. Avoid cutting trees on windy days.
Rain, snow and ice may lead to slips and falls. Be especially cautious when working under these conditions. If possible, put the job off until the weather improves.
Periods of hot, dry weather make leaves and grass a fire hazard. A faulty muffler can provide a spark that could set off a fire. Also, don't let dry combustible material contact a hot muffler.
Spilled fuel adds to the danger. Refuel on bare ground with the engine stopped and wipe spilled fuel off the saw at once. Move at least ten feet upwind from the fuel source before starting the saw. Carry fuel only in safety cans.
Certain trees can be dangerous to cut, especially for inexperienced operators. Professional lumberman have coined some expressions that describe problem trees:
Until you've had plenty of experience or instruction, don't attempt to cut trees like this.
With extended use, chain saw noise can cause hearing lose. Additionally, noise and vibration can cause fatigue and swelling of the hands. To reduce these potential harmful effects:
A chain saw must be properly maintained to be safe. This includes keeping teeth sharp, correct chain tension, proper lubrication, and keeping a properly tuned, clean engine. Keep the engine adjusted so the chain stops moving when the throttle is released. Check your operator's manual for maintenance information.
The most important factor in chain saw safety is the operator. Personal protective equipment such as trim fitting clothes, a safety "hard" hat, hearing protection devices, safety goggles, non-slip shoes and gloves should be provided. Protective leggings will also help.
To start the saw, place it on level ground and get good footing. Hold the saw with one hand and pull the starter rope with the other. Keep others away when starting the engine.
Use extreme caution to be sure the chain does not contact limbs or logs other than the one you want to cut, strike nails or stones or touch the ground when it is operating. The saw will jump back if the chain at the top of the bar touches anything and could cut the operator. This is called kickback. A chain that's misfiled or loose is likely to kick back. Kickback is also likely if you start a cut with the saw chain moving too slowly.
Be sure the bumper is against the tree while sawing or the chain riding across the tree may jerk the saw out of your hands.
Never carry a saw when it is running. If you should fall, the saw could spin around and cut you severely. The engine should be stopped and the saw carried with the blade pointed to the rear.
Only after you have mastered steady and even cutting should you attempt to fell a tree.
Check the situation carefully before felling a tree. Take note of the longer branches and wind direction to determine how the tree will fall. Be sure you have a clear area around the tree in which to work, and an open pathway from the tree for an escape route. Remove dirt and stones from the trunk of the tree where the cut will be made.
Examine trees for loose, dead limbs before felling. If such limbs appear to be a hazard, remove them before felling the tree.
When felling a tree:
Most chain saw accidents happen during limbing operations. Leave the larger lower limbs to support the log off the ground to aid bucking cuts. Prune the smaller limbs in one cut by starting at the bottom end of the tree. Undercuts should be used on limbs supported by branches to keep from binding the chain.
On small logs stand on the opposite side from the limb being cut. If on a side hill, work on the uphill side.
Make sure you have good footing and can get out of the way if the log should start to roll. On sloping ground, stand above the log rather than below it. If possible raise the log clear of the ground by using limbs, logs or chocks. To avoid pinching the guidebar and saw chain in the cut and splintering the log at the finish of the cut, use the following procedure.
When removing a limb on a standing tree, hoist the saw with a rope. Don't carry the saw while climbing. You need to use both hands to climb safely.
It is best to use a safety rope around the tree. Fasten it securely to your waist to avoid falls.
Topping is a technique for cutting off the top part of a tree while it's still standing. It's a difficult procedure and should be attempted only by highly skilled loggers.
An accident with a rotary mower can cost you your life! A rotary agricultural mower can also injure innocent bystanders, so it is also important that they be alert and aware of safety rules. Using proper equipment correctly, keeping equipment in good repair and following safety practices are the best ways to prevent accidents.
Use the right type of mower for the job - Know the job you are going to do, and use the correct mower for it. Check your operator's manual for the type of job your mower is designed to do. For example, don't try to cut brush with a mower designed only for forage. You could be exposed to hazards caused by machine failure. Use heavy-duty blades where they are needed, and use a large enough machine to do the job properly.
Keep others away - Don't allow riders on your tractor, and keep people away from the work area. Bystanders can be seriously injured or killed if struck by a thrown object or run over by the tractor or mower.
Watch for objects that can be thrown by the mower and remove them from the area - Tin cans, stones, wire or other objects may be hurled by the mower blades, causing serious injury or death.
Be alert to obstacles - Obstacles such as ditches, holes, rocks and stumps can throw you off the tractor or cause the tractor to upset. Be especially alert when objects can be hidden by tall grass, weeds or brush. Use the seat belt if your tractor is equipped with roll-over protection.
Before dismounting for any reason - Disengage the power take-off (PTO), turn off the engine and set the brakes.
Be sure the blades are stopped before approaching the mower - Many rotary mowers have blades that continue to rotate for some time after the PTO is disengaged.
Be careful turning sharp corners - On pull-type mowers, the rear tractor wheel could catch the mower frame and throw it on you. With three-point-hitch-mounted mowers, the mower could swing outward when you make a turn. Front wheel weights may be needed to help you keep control.
Set your rear tires as wide as possible - Wide-set tires provide greater tractor stability and lessen the chance of a tractor overturn.
Chain or belt guards reduce the possibility of objects being thrown from under the mower. Be sure these guards are maintained and kept in place. Power take-off shafts should also be protected by shields or guards. Keep them in place on the machine.
The most serious hazard of trenches is cave-in due to improper shoring and sloping of the trench. Other injuries are caused by work activities performed in the trench. These hazards include accidents due to falling materials, machinery, and exposure to noxious gases. Electrocution from utility lines or pipes, and slips and falls while climbing in and out of trenches are also potential hazards. Factors to consider before shoring or sloping are:
Certain diseases carried by animals can also affect humans. These are known as zoonoses, and if you work with animals you may be at risk from them. Although some zoonoses (anthrax, brucellosis or rabies) are now uncommon in the US, good occupational hygiene practices will protect against them as well as other more common zoonoses.
Zoonoses are caused by micro-organisms, which are subject to the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1994. These Regulations require employers and self-employed people to:
Everyone working with livestock should follow the principles of good occupational hygiene to protect against the risk of contracting a zoonosis. Consider the following precautions:
Your risk assessment will inform your decision on whether PPE is needed. Remember:
Organism: the protozoa Cryptosporidium parvum;
Host animal: calves and lambs;
Hazard to humans: diarrhea and abdominal pain with flu-like symptoms for up to six weeks. The young and the old are at greater risk;
Transmitted by: contact with animal feces and drinking water contaminated with animal feces;
Treatment: non-specific. Supportive care only;
Prevent by: good personal hygiene, use of clean water for washing and drinking;
Control in animals: good standards of hygiene in calf rearing housing; avoid contaminating animal drinking water with feces.
Organism: bacterium - Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae;
Host animal: rats;
Hazard to humans: fever, headache, vomiting, muscle pain; can lead to jaundice, meningitis and kidney failure. Can be fatal;
Transmitted by: contact with infected rat's urine or watercourses contaminated with it;
Treatment: early diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics is vital;
Prevent by: using a tool (fork, shovel) or wearing protective gloves to move dead rats; maintaining a high standard of personal hygiene; controlling or eliminating rats on the premises; always using first-aid dressings to cover cuts and abrasions;
Control in animals: none.
Organism: orf virus;
Host animal: sheep and goats, in particular lambs;
Hazard to humans: ulcerative lesions on face, hands and arms;
Transmitted by: contact with lesions on animals or with infected wool, fencing or hedges;
Treatment: none. Lesions heal within six to eight weeks;
Prevent by: good personal hygiene; covering cuts and scratches on hands and arms with first-aid dressings;
Control in animals: a live vaccine is available for sheep which will also minimize economic losses from orf infection in lambs.
Organism: Chlamydia psittaci;
Host animal: mainly sheep, possibly goats;
Hazard to humans: may cause abortion; flu-like illness;
Transmitted by: handling or contact with an affected afterbirth;
Prevent by: avoiding contact between pregnant women and pregnant ewes; leaving work-wear at the workplace for cleaning (wives/partners of men working with sheep may contract the disease by contacting soiled workwear);
Control in animals: consider vaccinating breeding sheep if enzootic abortion is confirmed in flock.
Visitors to farms may also be exposed to the disease; ensure they are aware of the risk and, if reasonably practicable, prevent access to risk areas.
Organism: Chlamydia psittaci;
Host animal: caged, wild and exotic birds; can spread into ducks and other poultry;
Hazard to humans: flu-like illness which may lead to pneumonia and in severe cases endocarditis, hepatitis and death;
Transmitted by: inhaling dust or aerosol from feces or nasal discharge from infected birds;
Treatment: antibiotics. Early diagnosis important;
Prevent by: local exhaust ventilation in evisceration areas if reasonably practicable; if not, using half mask respirators to BS EN 140, with filters to BS EN 141; good personal hygiene.
Control in animals: high standard of flock husbandry important. Avoid producing dust, maintain good ventilation and screen flocks for the organism.
Organism: Coxiella burnetii;
Host animal: mainly sheep and cattle;
Hazard to humans: mild illness, chill, headache and general malaise, but in rare cases can cause pneumonia, liver and heart valve damage and death;
Transmitted by: contacting animal or products; inhaling dust contaminated with material from afterbirths, urine and feces;
Prevent by: good personal hygiene; careful movement of infected bedding and afterbirths; wearing protective gloves and coveralls;
Control in animals: safely disposing of animal waste, in particular afterbirths and bedding soaked in birth fluids.
Organism: in cattle, the fungus Trichophyton verrucosum;
Host animal: mainly cattle but pigs, sheep, horses and dogs can be infected with a similar fungus;
Hazard to humans: inflamed, swollen, crusty skin lesions mainly on hands, forearms, head and neck;
Transmitted by: spores entering skin through cuts and abrasions; spores transmitted to skin from handling infected livestock or equipment (gates etc) they have rubbed against;
Treatment: early diagnosis and treatment by doctor important;
Prevent by: high standard of personal hygiene and always covering cuts and other skin wounds with waterproof dressings.
Control in animals: preventing and treating disease in animals; high standard of cleanliness in buildings, in particular calf pens, cattle crushes etc;
|Univ. Police & Security Services||7-7000|
|Environmental Health & Safety||7-2273|
|Facilities Services (24-hr. service)||7-4038|
The first three items listed above should be visibly displayed on every Oregon State University telephone.
Any on-the-job accident that results in a fatality or the immediate hospitalization of an employee shall be reported WITHIN 8 HOURS by telephone to Environmental Health and Safety (7-2273), who in turn will make the required notification to OR-OSHA.
Activate the building fire alarm by pulling the nearest wall "fire pull" to alert occupants. The alarm does not always call fire fighters to the scene, but most alarms are connected to the campus notifier system which is monitored by Security Services Dispatch Center. Call the Corvallis Fire Department (911), and give the exact location of the fire. Evacuate occupants from the building. Follow building evacuation procedures below. Send someone outside the building to direct fire fighters to the scene. For small fires, use the closest appropriate fire extinguisher. Do not use water on electrical fires.
When the alarm sounds, walk to the nearest exit. Use the stairways. Do not use the elevator. It can quickly become a smoke or fire trap and may lose electric power. Be aware of alternate exits from the building.
Before leaving the work station, take personal valuables and lock up any valuable materials or documents. Do not, however, endanger life through delay. Assist non-ambulatory persons in leaving the building. (For detailed instructions, see Building Evacuation Planning.)
Use fire escape ladders only when stairways are closed by fire. In an actual fire, feel each door before opening it. If it feels hot, use an alternate exit. If caught in smoke, keep low where the air is better. Take short breaths through the nose.
When outside the building, do not block doorways or driveways. Stay a minimum of 100 feet from the building. Do not return to the building until advised to do so by personnel in charge.
Determine the extent of the person’s injury. Check for breathing, pulse, bleeding, possible fracture, and pain. Administer first aid as indicated by the extent of the injuries. If the injured person is:
In the event of a large scale catastrophe, the President of OSU may proclaim a disaster and invoke the OSU Disaster Management Plan. The provisions of this plan supersede routine emergency procedures.
Oregon Safety Codes state that every place of employment having more than one employee must have an emergency medical plan.
If a physician or an ambulance with an emergency medical technician is available to the place of employment within 30 minutes, the “emergency medical plan” is the posting of the emergency 911 number on or adjacent to operating telephones.
If the place of employment is not within 30 minutes of a physician or equipped ambulance, the emergency medical plan shall consist of:
Oregon State Safety code requires that first aid supplies shall be available in close proximity to all employees. The required supplies are based upon the intended use and types of injuries that could occur in the work environment.
It is the responsibility of each department to determine how many first aid kits are needed for its work areas and to develop a program for maintaining these kits. First aid kits and replacement supplies are available through the Facilities Services stores. The basic kit should contain, but not be limited to, the following items:
Individual first aid training is available through the local Red Cross office.
*For emergencies see Emergency Response.
Farm Safety Training checklist
Employee Name: Employee ID #
Supervisor Check Training to be Conducted
Hazard communication and Right-To-Know
Sec. 2 Ch. 1
- Video #1
Confined and Hazardous Spaces
Sec. 2 Ch. 1
- Video #2
Lock Out / Tag Out
Sec. 2 Ch. 3
Sec. 2 Ch. 3
Personal Protective Equipment
Sec. 2 Ch. 4
Sec. 2 Ch. 5
Sec. 2 Ch. 6
Sec. 2 Ch. 7
Workshops and Maintenance
Sec. 2 Ch. 8
Sec. 2 Ch. 9
- Video #3
Elevated Work surfaces
Sec. 2 Ch. 10
- Video #4
Sec. 2 Ch. 11
- Video #5
Sec. 2 Ch. 12
- Video #6
Sec. 2 Ch. 13
Sec. 2 Ch. 14
Motor Vehicle Maintenance and Operation
Sec. 2 Ch. 15
Sec. 2 Ch. 16
Hearing Conservation Program
Sec. 3 Ch. 1
Respiratory Protection Program
Sec. 3 Ch. 2
Health Hazards in Agriculture
Sec. 3 Ch. 3
Ergonomics in Agriculture
Sec. 3 Ch. 4
- Video #7
Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure Control
Sec. 3 Ch. 5
College of Agriculture
Farm Safety Training checklist
Supervisor Check Training to be Conducted
Sec. 4 Ch. 1
- Video #8
Sec. 4 Ch. 1
Grain harvesting Equipment (combines)
Sec. 4 Ch. 1
Sec. 4 Ch. 1
Sec. 4 Ch. 1
ATV’s and Ag. Bikes
Sec. 4 Ch. 1
Dangers of Agricultural machinery
Sec. 4 Ch. 1
- Video #9
Sec. 4 Ch. 2
Sec. 4 Ch. 2
Sec. 4 Ch. 2
Dairy Farm Safety
Sec. 4 Ch. 3
- Video #15
Farm Fuel Safety
Sec. 4 Ch. 4
Sec. 4 Ch. 5
- Video #10
WPS for the Agricultural Handler / Applicator
Sec. 4 Ch. 5
- Video #11
WPS for the Agricultural worker
Sec. 4 Ch. 5
- Video #12
Requirements for Nurseries and Greenhouses
Sec. 4 Ch. 5
Sec. 4 Ch. 6
- Video #13
Rotary Agricultural Mower Safety
Sec. 4 Ch. 7
Trenching and Excavation Operations
Sec. 4 Ch. 8
Sec. 4 Ch. 9
Common Zoonoses in Africulture
Sec. 4 Ch. 10
WPS for Orchard Workers
- Video #14
- Video #16 (Humorous)
The Society for engineering in agricultural, food, and biological systems (ASAE), which develops standards for specific agricultural equipment and materials, has a standard for the design and manufacture of Slow-Moving Vehicle (SMV) emblems. This standard specifies the quality and durability of the yellow-orange fluorescent triangle that provides daylight identification of slow-moving vehicles. Under this standard, the fluorescent center-piece is fade resistant, making it durable over an extended period of time.
One important feature of this standard is the placement of the manufacturer's name and address on the emblem and a statement that this emblem meets the requirements of the ASAE. An example of this certification and location is shown on the SMV below. Requirements for the SMV emblem are also summarized:
The term "highway" as used in the Code, is officially defined as "the entire width between the boundary lines of every way publicly maintained when any part thereof is open to public use for purposes of vehicular traffic."
Emblems that have a metal or plastic backing, as well as decal emblems, are suitable for use. The emblem should be seen from a distance of at least 600 feet day or night. The fluorescent yellow-orange center is the most visible color in daylight, and the red reflective border is highly visible in headlight beams after dark.
Farmers should replace faded SMVs with newer emblems as soon as they begin to fade. All slow-moving vehicles should have the ASAE standard SMV emblem properly displayed at all times.
For questions on obtaining SMV emblems, contact EH&S at 737-2273.