Rolling Submission through 3/31/2017). Science Mission Directorate (SMD) acknowledges that there are important and highly relevant research topics and opportunities that cannot be anticipated in the annual ROSES solicitation. In particular, it is usually not possible to solicit the following two types of activities: 1)Immediate research activity to take advantage of a target of opportunity due to an unforeseen event in the Earth system, 2)Exceptionally novel and innovative ideas to advance Earth remote sensing that do not fit within ESD’s current slate of solicitations and/or programs. Proposals should normally be for support of one year or less, under the assumption that further work will be proposed to another program. ESD has not reserved any funds dedicated to this solicitation, but anticipates that its individual programs will consider support of a very small number of meritorious proposals each year. Prior to proposal submission, contact the most relevant NASA program officer (http://science.nasa.gov/researchers/sara/program-officers-list/#earth) Proposers that forego this step run an increased risk of having their proposals declined or returned without review.