Letter of intent (full proposal due 9/12/2017). The mission of the NIH Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats (CounterACT) program is to develop new and improved therapeutics to treat and/or prevent injuries resulting from exposure to chemical threats. Chemical threats are toxic chemicals that could be used in a terrorist attack or accidentally released from industrial production, storage or shipping. They include traditional chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals and materials. This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) requests research applications seeking support for research on the optimization of small molecule or biologic compounds that are excellent candidates for therapeutic development. A previously identified lead compound is required to be eligible for this funding opportunity. In this regard, lead compounds are defined as biologically active compounds or hits where affinity, potency, target selectivity, and preliminary safety have been established. The scope of research supported by this FOA includes development of appropriate human-relevant animal models and generation of in vivo efficacy data consistent with the intended use of the product in humans. It also includes bioanalytical assay development and validation, laboratory-scale and scale-up manufacturing of the product, and non-GLP toxicity and pharmacology studies. The scope of this FOA encompasses Technical Readiness Levels (TRLs) 4-5 - see TRLs. Each project must include annual milestones that create discrete go or no-go decision points in a progressive translational study plan.