Letter of intent (full proposal due 5/26/2017). This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) solicits grant applications proposing exploratory research projects focused on the early-stage development of highly innovative technologies offering novel molecular or cellular analysis capabilities for basic or clinical cancer research. The emphasis of this FOA is on supporting the development of novel capabilities involving a high degree of technical innovation for targeting, probing, or assessing molecular and cellular features of cancer biology. Well-suited applications must offer the potential to accelerate and/or enhance research in the areas of cancer biology, early detection and screening, clinical diagnosis, treatment, control, epidemiology, and/or address issues associated with cancer health disparities. Technologies proposed for development may be intended to have widespread applicability but must be focused on improving molecular and/or cellular characterizations of cancer biology.