|Title||Moisture Adsorption Isotherm and Storability of Hazelnut Inshells and Kernels Produced in Oregon, USA.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2018|
|Authors||Jung, J, Wang, W, McGorrin, RJ, Zhao, Y|
|Journal||J Food Sci|
|Date Published||2018 Feb|
|Keywords||Adsorption, Catechol Oxidase, Corylus, Food Packaging, Food Preservation, Food, Preserved, Lipid Peroxidation, Nuts, Oregon, Oxidation-Reduction, Species Specificity, Vacuum, Water|
Moisture adsorption isotherms and storability of dried hazelnut inshells and kernels produced in Oregon were evaluated and compared among cultivars, including Barcelona, Yamhill, and Jefferson. Experimental moisture adsorption data fitted to Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) model, showing less hygroscopic properties in Yamhill than other cultivars of inshells and kernels due to lower content of carbohydrate and protein, but higher content of fat. The safe levels of moisture content (MC, dry basis) of dried inshells and kernels for reaching kernel water activity (a ) ≤0.65 were estimated using the GAB model as 11.3% and 5.0% for Barcelona, 9.4% and 4.2% for Yamhill, and 10.7% and 4.9% for Jefferson, respectively. Storage conditions (2 °C at 85% to 95% relative humidity [RH], 10 °C at 65% to 75% RH, and 27 °C at 35% to 45% RH), times (0, 4, 8, or 12 mo), and packaging methods (atmosphere vs. vacuum) affected MC, a , bioactive compounds, lipid oxidation, and enzyme activity of dried hazelnut inshells or kernels. For inshells packaged at woven polypropylene bag, MC and a of inshells and kernels (inside shells) increased at 2 and 10 °C, but decreased at 27 °C during storage. For kernels, lipid oxidation and polyphenol oxidase activity also increased with extended storage time (P < 0.05), and MC and a of vacuum packaged samples were more stable during storage than those atmospherically packaged ones. Principal component analysis showed correlation of kernel qualities with storage condition, time, and packaging method. This study demonstrated that the ideal storage condition or packaging method varied among cultivars due to their different moisture adsorption and physicochemical and enzymatic stability during storage.
PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Moisture adsorption isotherm of hazelnut inshells and kernels is useful for predicting the storability of nuts. This study found that water adsorption and storability varied among the different cultivars of nuts, in which Yamhill was less hygroscopic than Barcelona and Jefferson, thus more stable during storage. For ensuring food safety and quality of nuts during storage, each cultivar of kernels should be dried to a certain level of MC. Lipid oxidation and enzyme activity of kernel could be increased with extended storage time. Vacuum packaging was recommended to kernels for reducing moisture adsorption during storage.
|Alternate Journal||J Food Sci|