Publications

December 31, 2014

This research has demonstrated that liming clubroot infected soils to a pH ≥7.1 is an effective practice for reducing both the incidence and severity of clubroot. Liming does not kill the pathogen but rather prevents disease spores from infecting the plant. This research demonstrated that highly reactive calcitic lime products could be substituted for hydrated lime as they effectively raise the pH of the soil to the target pH of ≥7.1 within a week after application. The project also demonstrated that boron and Serenade drenches did not suppress clubroot under field conditions.

January 6, 2016

This project is evaluating interseeding of crop crops to improve cover crop establishment after late harvested crops such as sweet corn and processing squash. In Project 1 at the OSU Vegetable Research Farm, a cover crop of oat and crimson clover produced the most cover crop biomass when interseeded at V4 compared to V6 and V8 plantings but may have reduced corn yield slightly because of competition for water or nutrients. Applying Laudis herbicide immediately after interseeding of the cover crop had no impact on cover crop establishment, even when seeds were broadcast on the soil surface and incorporated lightly. Clover did not emerge well in interseeded plots, possibly because it was planted too deeply. Clover establishment was best when seed was broadcast on the soil surface and incorporated with shallow tillage. Cover crop biomass in mid-December averaged less in interseeded plots than in fall-planted plots because the oat cover crops began to senesce.

July 21, 2014

Clubroot is an increasing problem on Willamette Valley vegetable farms. Most cultivated brassica crops (broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, etc.) are highly susceptible to the disease, which is caused by the soilborne fungus Plasmodiophora brassicae. In severe cases it can cause significant crop losses, and heavily infested fields may be taken out of production. Once a field is infected, eliminating the pathogen is difficult if not impossible because its thick walled resting spores have been shown to remain viable in soil for up to 20 years (although half die within 4 years). As a result, once pathogen populations have developed to economically damaging levels, the goal is to manage rather than eradicate the disease. Our research is focused on finding effective and economic control measures.

December 31, 2014

Processors need broccoli with better quality traits than what is available in cultivars developed for California and Mexico fresh markets. Farmers need to reduce labor costs of broccoli production but mechanizing harvest. Most contemporary commercially available cultivars are not suitable for either mechanical harvest or processing. The objective of the OSU broccoli breeding program is to develop broccoli varieties adapted to western Oregon with suitable quality and high yields. The program operates on a one year cycle where cuttings from the field are taken into the greenhouse in the fall where they are rooted and hand crossed and self-pollinated to produce seed for the next generation. Seed is harvested in May and June and used to plant trials for fall evaluation.

January 6, 2016

Prices paid for sweet corn are low relative to the cost of producing the crop, and every strategy possible must be used to maximize net return. Two strategies used to enhance profitability but that have received little research attention under Western Oregon conditions are the use of pop-up fertilizers and increased plant populations. Despite indications that popup fertilizers improve early-season growth, concrete evidence that these fertilizers ultimately enhance growth and yield are often lacking. Seeding density also can be increased to improve crop yield up to a point, but intraspecific competitive ability and the competitive stress tolerance of varieties currently produced in the Willamette Valley has not been demonstrated.

December 31, 2016

Processors need broccoli with better quality traits than what is available in cultivars developed for California and Mexico fresh markets. Farmers need to reduce labor costs of broccoli production by mechanizing harvest. Most contemporary commercially available cultivars are not suitable for either mechanical harvest or processing. The objective of the OSU broccoli breeding program is to develop broccoli varieties adapted to western Oregon with suitable quality and high yields. The program operates on a one year cycle where cuttings from the field are taken into the greenhouse in the fall where they are rooted and hand crossed and self-pollinated to produce seed for the next generation. Seed is harvested in May and June and used to plant trials for fall evaluation.

December 31, 2014

Prices paid for sweet corn are low relative to the cost of producing the crop, and every strategy possible must be used to maximize net return. Two strategies used to enhance profitability but that have received little research attention under Western Oregon conditions are the use of pop-up fertilizers and increased plant populations. Despite indications that popup fertilizers improve early-season growth, concrete evidence that these fertilizers ultimately enhance growth and yield are often lacking. Seeding density also can be increased to improve crop yield up to a point, but intraspecific competitive ability and the competitive stress tolerance of varieties currently produced in the Willamette Valley are poorly understood.

January 6, 2016

Oregon is the second largest producer of processed green beans, and cultivars are needed that are adapted to western Oregon. The types that have traditionally been used are the bush blue lake (BBL) green beans with high yields, excellent processing quality. On the other hand, then need improvement in plant architecture, disease resistance (especially to white mold), and are genetically isolated from other green beans. The primary objective of the OSU green bean breeding program is to develop high yielding and high quality BBL green beans with high levels of white mold resistance. In 2015, a yield and processing trial of 18 advanced lines was conducted. An additional commercial trial with 27 entries was also grown and evaluated. Seven advanced lines are undergoing intense scrutiny for release as the first partially white mold resistant lines commercially available.

December 31, 2016

The resistance to white mold obtained so far in snap beans has been derived from NY 6020, which provides partial physiological resistance. Under light disease pressure, plants will show few if any symptoms, while under heavy pressure, the plants may show a moderate level of infection (whereas susceptible BBL types will be 100% molded). Cultivars with this form of resistance would not need any supplemental control with fungicides, whereas under heavy pressure, fungicides might be required, but at a reduced frequency or quantity. The objective of this study was to determine whether OR6771 would benefit from an integrated mold control approach that included fungicides typically used in snap production, Topsin M and Rovral tankmixed.

December 31, 2014

For the past 18 years, processed vegetable growers in the Willamette Valley, OR have had a vital partner in crop pest monitoring – Oregon State University’s VegNet. This regional pest monitoring program provides weekly activity reports for common broccoli, cauliflower, sweet corn, and snap bean pests. Data is published on www.oregonvegetables.com and is available as an email subscription newsletter. The main goal of the program is to provide an early warning to growers of potential outbreaks that may warrant increased field scouting and action.

January 6, 2016

Urea is a common nitrogen fertilizer for sweet corn production. This two year project evaluated commercially available urea additives for their potential to provide crop production and environmental benefits. Specifically, experiments were designed to evaluate the efficacy of urea fertilizer products containing a urease inhibitor (Agrotain Ultra), or nitrification inhibitors, or a polymer coated urea product (ESN). Products containing nitrification inhibitors (SuperU and Instinct) were evaluated only in 2014, and found to have efficacy similar to ESN in slowing conversion of urea to leachable nitrate-N. The control treatment in all studies was granular urea without additives.

January 6, 2016

Processors need broccoli with better quality traits than what is available in cultivars developed for California and Mexico fresh markets. Farmers need to reduce labor costs of broccoli production by mechanizing harvest. Most contemporary commercially available cultivars are not suitable for either mechanical harvest or processing. The objective of the OSU broccoli breeding program is to develop broccoli varieties adapted to western Oregon with suitable quality and high yields. The program operates on a one year cycle where cuttings from the field are taken into the greenhouse in the fall where they are rooted and hand crossed and self-pollinated to produce seed for the next generation. Seed is harvested in May and June and used to plant trials for fall evaluation. In 2015, nine experimental hybrids were planted in a replicated yield trial, which also included two commercial check hybrids and a new exserted commercial hybrid from Seminis.

December 31, 2016

Oregon vegetable processors are in need of improvements to the cost of harvesting broccoli and cauliflower, along with improvements to the quality of the vegetables being processed. The objectiveof this research project is to develop autonomous, mechanical harvesting solutions for the broccoli and cauliflower producer. This work is complementary to Oregon State University development of a new broccoli hybrid developed specifically for automated mechanical harvest.

August 12, 2013

The following is a method for cheaply and quickly determining a soil’s nitrate status for the purpose of determining the midseason sidedress fertilizer rate for sweet corn. For information on the pre-sidedress nitrate test (PSNT), see OSU’s nutrient management guide EM 9010-E (Sweet Corn- Western Oregon). The ‘Quick Test’ (QT) has been in use for years in the Salinas Valley of California with good results. Compared to a traditional laboratory test, it is cheaper and test results can be obtained within hours of sample collection. Although this method is semi-quantitative, results from the QT are well correlated with laboratory results.

December 31, 2014

Report to the Oregon Processed Vegetable CommissionOregon is the second largest producer of processed green beans, and cultivars are needed that are adapted to western Oregon. The types that have traditionally been used are the bush blue lake (BBL) green beans with high yields, excellent processing quality. On the other hand, then need improvement in plant architecture, disease resistance (especially to white mold), and are genetically isolated from other green beans. The primary objective of the OSU green bean breeding program is to develop high yielding and high quality BBL green beans with high levels of white mold resistance.

January 6, 2016

The goals of this project were to determine 1) if liming controls clubroot, 2) the pH that must be attained to achieve commercially viable levels of control, and 3) how best to lime (materials, timing, incorporation strategies) to achieve that pH. Research conducted in 2014 showed that liming clubroot infected soils to a pH ≥7.1 is an effective practice for reducing both the incidence and severity of clubroot. Liming does not kill the pathogen but rather prevents disease spores from infecting the plant. In 2015 the research was focused on the relationship between disease incidence and severity when pH <7.1,better understanding when to apply lime, and how to incorporate to maximize pH change.

January 6, 2016

The resistance to white mold obtained so far in snap beans has been derived from NY 6020, which provides partial physiological resistance. Under light disease pressure, plants will show few if any symptoms, while under heavy pressure, the plants may show a moderate level of infection (whereas susceptible BBL types will be 100% molded). Cultivars with this form of resistance would not need any supplemental control with fungicides, whereas under heavy pressure, fungicides might be required, but at a reduced frequency or quantity. The objective of this study was to determine whether OR6771 would benefit from an integrated mold control approach that included fungicides typically used in snap production, Topsin M and Rovral tankmixed.

December 31, 2016

Experiments in Corvallis, OR and Pasco, WA evaluated the potential of bicyclopyrone, tolpyralate, halosulfuron and EPTC for weed control in carrots. Bicyclopyrone and tolpyralate significantly reduced plant stand, injured carrots, and reduced yield at all three rates. Only bicyclopyrone at 0.875 oz/A and tolpyralate at 1 oz/A provided yield within range of linuron, prometryn, and EPTC treatments. The prometryn treatment yielded the most carrots, followed closely by linuron and EPTC. Halosulfuron killed all carrots. Weed control with bicyclopyrone and tolpyralate was similar when comparing within treatments with equal carrot injury. A possible exception was that tolpyralate may have controlled crabgrass better than bicyclopyrone. Prometryn control of hairy nightshade lasted longer than linuron.

December 31, 2014

Despite the availability of several herbicides in table beets, weed control is still problematic. UpBeet (triflusulfuron; DuPont) was recently labeled, but the labeled timings and rate are inadequate for optimum weed control, particularly for lambsquarters. An experiment was placed at the OSU Vegetable Research Farm to determine the tolerance of 2-leaf table beets to UpBeet when applied at double the currently labeled rate of 0.5 oz/A, and to beets at the cotyledon stage at 0.5 oz/A.

January 6, 2016

In recent years, several new powdered limestone products that are more finely ground (smaller particle size distribution) than products historically used have become commercially available. A major factor that influences the effectiveness of a liming material is its particle size distribution, with smaller particles reacting more quickly. Because lime efficiency estimates for various particle size fractions were established in the 1950’s, there is a need to evaluate current guidelines to determine if they adequately predict liming efficiency for these new products. The objective of this study was to assess the reactivity of commercially available powdered lime products (both calcitic and dolomitic) and various particle size fractions over a year with the goal of evaluating current OSU lime guidelines.

December 31, 2016

This year, we commemorate 20 years of OSU’s VegNet (1996-2016). VegNet has become a well-known and utilized resource for processed vegetable growers, researchers, and Ag professionals throughout Oregon. This regional program provides weekly activity reports for common broccoli, cauliflower, sweet corn, and snap bean pests. The main goal of the program is to serve as an early warning and detection network, to inform growers of potential pest outbreaks that may warrant increased field scouting and action. Notable trends from 2016 include extensive Cabbage Looper pressure, a continued increase of Cucumber Beetle species (12-spot and striped), and new Armyworms to be aware of. It is becoming apparent that pest activity can vary widely between field sites. Although the regional average is useful, it should not be the only metric used when considering if and how to treat for pests.

March 14, 2014

Current snap bean phosphorus (P) fertilizer recommendations for Oregon are higher than those given in other extension publications across the US. Despite the scale and importance of snap bean production in Oregon, little attention has been paid to the phosphorus (P) utilization of this crop over the past 30 years in the Willamette Valley.Due to changes in production practices, the increase in the price of P fertilizers, trends towards greater sustainability, and soil test P (STP) values commonly greater than 50 ppm Bray (the level at which a crop response to P fertilizer is unlikely), there is interest in revisiting the current recommendations to better balance P inputs/outputs.

December 31, 2014

The overall objective of this multi-year project is to maximize nutrient use efficiency without compromising bean yield and quality. This year’s project objectives were to: 1) evaluate crop response to P fertilizer at current soil P test levels in grower fields; 2) generate phosphorus (P) potassium (K), and nitrogen (N) nutrient budgets (fertilizer inputs vs. harvest removal); and 3) evaluate relationships among bean root rot disease, plant P uptake, biomass allocation (pods vs. leaves).

January 6, 2016

The overall objective of this three-year project was to provide farmers with updated fertilizer recommendations for snap beans. The goal was to maximize nutrient use efficiency without compromising bean yield and quality. This was accomplished by partnering with commercial bean growers to conduct on-farm research as well as conducting trials at OSU’s Vegetable Research Farm.

December 31, 2016

Several new powdered limestone products that are more finely ground (smaller particle size distribution) than products historically used have become commercially available. A major factor influencing the effectiveness of a liming material is its particle size distribution, with smaller particles reacting more quickly. Because lime efficiency estimates for various particle size fractions were established in the 1950’s, there is a need to evaluate current guidelines to determine if they adequately predict liming efficiency for these new products. The objective of this study was to assess the reactivity of commercially available powdered lime products (both calcitic and dolomitic) and various particle size fractions over a year with the goal of evaluating current OSU lime guidelines.

January 1, 1978

In 1978 a survey was done in the Willamette Valley to explore the relationship between soil nutrient values and tissue nutrient concentrations.

December 31, 2014

Enhanced efficiency fertilizer (EEF) technologies have the potential to improve the crop N use efficiency (NUE) as well as minimize negative environmental losses compared to conventional fertilizers. The EEF fertilizer products consist of urea plus additives (to inhibit N loss). The major pathways for N loss in our sweet corn cropping systems are 1) N leached below the root zone as water soluble nitrate-N (NO3-N), and 2) gaseous ammonia loss (NH3-N) to the atmosphere following a surface urea application.Field studies and a laboratory incubation study were conducted in 2014 to evaluate the potential for benefit from EEF products via reduced nitrate-N leaching. Three products were evaluated: ESN (polymer coated urea), SuperU (prilled urea containing both a urease and nitrification inhibitor), and Instinct (urea + nitrification inhibitor).

January 6, 2016

Oregon State University’s VegNet is a regional pest monitoring program that provides activity reports for 10 common insect pests that affect broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, sweet corn, and snap beans. Crop pests are sampled weekly and raw data is compared to activity trends from previous years. Regional pest monitoring helps growers and agricultural field representatives adjust their scouting effort when an outbreak is detected, and the combination of area-wide monitoring plus field-specific scouting reduces risk of crop loss. Reports are available on www.oregonvegetables.com, and sent via an email newsletter that currently serves over 400 subscribers. In 2015, increases in pest pressure were noted for black cutworm, spotted cucumber beetle, cabbage white butterfly, bertha armyworm, and diamondback moth.

December 31, 2016

The market for organic vegetables is increasing. As conventional farmers transition fields to organics to meet this demand, there is a need for better organic nutrient management guidance, especially for nitrogen (N). Organic N management is more challenging than conventional N management due to a higher level of uncertainty surrounding the N supplying capacity of an organically managed soil as well as the constraints of organic fertilizers (supply, application timing and placement, and uncertainty of release rate and amount). As a result, conventional nutrient management strategies may not be appropriate for organically managed systems. With organic N management there is often a higher risk of excessive nitrate-N loss and higher risk of not achieving economic yield targets.

 Cichorium intybus L. var. folosum

 Last revised February 10, 2010

(See also file on Radicchio)

The terms "chicory" and "endive" are frequently interchanged because the "forced" product of Witloof chicory has been erroneously named French or Belgian endive. This information deals with the production of the forced Witloof chicory for chicons (4-6 inch, spindle-shaped heads or buds). Other synonyms are White Endive and Dutch chicory.

Citrullus lanatus

Last revised February 11, 2010

Many new varieties of watermelons have been developed in recent years. Yellow and seedless types are finding an increasing share of the specialty watermelon market. It is estimated that seedless red and yellow varieties that were virtually unknown ten years ago, and represent about 5% of the market today will increase their market share substantially in the near future. Small excellent quality "icebox" melons are also becoming increasingly popular.

Brassica rapa (Rapifera Group)

Last revised February 10, 2010

VARIETIES(approximately 30 days for greens).

Shogoin (roots edible), Seven Top (root inedible); For trial: Topper, All Top.

Other greens:

Mustard: Florida Broadleaf (most popular), Southern Giant Curled. For trial: Tendergreen II (a hybrid), Tendergreen, Southern Giant Curled.

Collards: Blue Max, Georgia Southern, Heavi-Crop, Top Bunch, Vates. For trial: Morris Heading, Champion, Carolina, and hybrid: Hi Crop.

Lycopersicon esculentum

Last revised February 15, 2010

Last revised February 15, 2010

Lycopersicon esculentum

Spinacia oleracea

Last revised February 15, 2010

Capsicum annuum and C. frutescens

Last revised February 12, 2010

Last revised February 15, 2010

Allium cepa (Aggregatum Group)

 Last revised February 15, 2010

VARIETIES AND PLANTING STOCK

Shallots are normally propagated from bulb divisions. In addition, true seed of shallots is now available in both red and yellow types.

Shallots propagated from bulb divisions:

French Red Shallot - red type is the most common dry shallot grown. Other yellow or white varieties include Griselle, Chicken Leg Shallot, and Dutch Yellow, but only the red shallot is important in the market.

Tragopogon porrifolius and Scorzonera hispanica

Last revised February 15, 2010

 Brassica napus (Napobrassica group) and Brassica rapa (Rapifera Group)

 Last revised February 15, 2010

VARIETIES (approximately 60-80 days).

Rutabaga

Rheum rhabarbarum

 Last revised February 15, 2010

Ipomoea batatas

 Last revised February 15, 2010

Sweetpotato is one word because the crop is distinctly different from potato (Solanum tuberosum) and yam (Dioscorea sp.), which are also grown and marketed in the U.S.A. Production of true yams (sweetpotato is also marketed as yam), however, is negligible. Almost all aspects of sweetpotato production, harvest, handling and storage, are different from potato, so these crops must not be confused nor treated similarly.

Raphanus sativus

Last revised February 15, 2010

Cucurbita pepo

Last revised February 12, 2010

 Cichorium intybus

 Last revised February 10, 2010

(See also file on Witloof chicory)

VARIETIES (approximately 80 days).

This group of leafy vegetables falls under the general name of chicory. Heading and non-heading types exist. The heading types may be green-leaf or red. Some red types turn red only with the onset of cool weather.

Radicchio (Italian Chicory)

Cucurbita, several species, and ornamental, wax, sponge gourd, etc.

Last revised February 12, 2010

Lactuca sativa

Last revised February 11, 2010
 

Lettuce is produced on both mineral and muck (organic) soils. Production practices and varieties are quite different for each soil type. This guide is directed to mineral soil production unless indicated otherwise.
Four morphological types of lettuce dominate U.S. production, these are crisphead, cos (or romaine), leaf, and butterhead. Two others, stem and Latin are rarely found, although stem lettuce may be found in Oriental food stores.

Onions for Dehydration

Allium cepa

Last revised February 12, 2010

Cucumis melo

 Last revised February 11, 2010

Pisum sativum

 Last revised February 12, 2010

The Oriental edible-pod pea or Chinese Pod Pea is also known as Snow Pea and Sugar Pea. These are all flat-podded peas that are hand picked and are available fresh or as a frozen vegetable and used in Oriental dishes.

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