This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) will support students at institutions without NIH-funded institutional predoctoral dual-degree training programs. The purpose of the Kirschstein-NRSA, dual-doctoral degree, predoctoral fellowship (F30) is to enhance the integrated research and clinical training of promising predoctoral students, who are matriculated in a combined MD/PhD or other dual-doctoral degree training program (e.g., DO/PhD, DDS/PhD, AuD/PhD, DVM/PhD), and who intend careers as physician/clinician-scientists. Applicants must propose an integrated research and clinical training plan and a dissertation research project in scientific health-related fields relevant to the missions of the participating NIH Institutes and Centers. The fellowship experience is expected to clearly enhance the individual's potential to develop into a productive, independent physician/clinician-scientist. This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) does not allow applicants to propose to lead an independent clinical trial, clinical trial feasibility study, or an ancillary clinical trial, but does allow applicants to propose research experience in a clinical trial led by a sponsor or co-sponsor.