As bamboo commerce and cultivation has expanded throughout the world, so too have the insect and mite residents of bamboo. Some of the most troubling residents of bamboo are the bamboo mites, a number of mite species, which feed on bamboo potentially lowering its aesthetic and economic value. A wide variety of mites occur on bamboo. Forty-five species of mites from 23 genera and 9 families were collected from moso bamboo in Fujian, China (Lin et al, 2000). Of most concern in the production of bamboo are mites from the families Tetranychidae, Eriophyidae, and Tarsonemidae.
The bamboo spider mites in the genus Schizotetranychus have been implicated as the most damaging mites in bamboo production. Schizotetranychids are found worldwide, including Asia, Europe, and America (Banks and Tuttle, 1994; Ostoja-Starzewski, 2000; Flechtmann, 1995). In the U.S., mites of bamboo are thought to be Stigmaeopsis (Schizotetranychus) celarius. First described as Stigmeopsis celarius by Banks in 1917, it was renamed Schizotetranychus celarius by McGregor in 1950 (Baker and Tuttle, 1994) but has lately been renamed in genus Stigmeaopsis again. S. celarius is actually a complex of mites. These mites have been further delineated as separate species; S. celarius Banks, S. miscanthus Saito, and S. longus Saito (Saito, 1990). Baker and Tuttle (1994) list the distribution of S. celarius as California, Florida, and Georgia. S. longus, previously known as the long setal form of S. celarius, is the species of bamboo mite isolated from two sites in Oregon (Pratt and Croft, 1999). Schizotetranychus longus Saito was originally described from specimens collected from Sasa senanensis (Franch. et Sav.) on the island of Hokkaido in Japan (Saito, 1990a). Bamboo mites have also been reported from Maryland, New York, Virginia, and Louisiana.
Bamboo mites have a flattened body, which is straw-colored to greenish yellow with small blackish green spots. These mites form colonies on the underside of the leaves and live under a densely woven web. Generally the mites remain under the web to feed and lay eggs, leaving to defecate in black fecal piles slighted removed from the nest. Adults and nymphs can sometimes be found outside the webbing, particularly as they begin to form new nests. Multiple males and females can be found in the web nests and often many webbed nests will form alongside each other running down the underside of the bamboo leaves. Saito and Ueno (1979) report 26 generations per year for S. celarius Banks reared in controlled laboratory environments.
There are preferred bamboo host species for S. longus. Sasa appears to be one of the most susceptible hosts. The other reported preferred hosts are bamboo plants of the genera: Indocalamus, Phyllostachys, and Pleioblastus (Cooper, 97). It is thought that leaf pubescence may deter the mite.
Cultivar effects - Note increased damage on Sasa
Multiple Life Stages
Mites outside web
The mite feeding on the plant cell contents leaves a distinct pattern of damage visible on both sides of the leaf. The feeding site damage is yellow and may look similar to variegation. This damage is thought to vary slightly amongst the bamboo mite species and may be a helpful indicator of which species is present. Research by Yu Huaxing and Shi Jimao (mentioned in Insect Pests of Bamboos in Asia), measured a population of Schizotetranychid mites in an outbreak on bamboo in China, averaging 85.2 mites per leaf, and the impact of their damage on new shoot production was quantified as a 200 kg per hectare reduction.
Damage along vein
Fecal spots (leaf underside)
Fecal spot closeup (leaf underside)
The best way to control a pest is to avoid it like the plague. Think of bamboo mites as contagious. Is this something you want to share with your friends? If not, then consider implementing a preventative pest management program. That can be best accomplished by the use of
- quarantine, and
- hot spot eradication.
Bamboo mites are monophagous mites, limited to few plant species. This works to our favor in control of the mite, as reintroduction potential is limited. Meticulous inspection of all new plant material is critical. Trade plants, not pests.
Quarantine new plant material away from other susceptible plants, downwind if possible. Systemically monitor new and existing plants on a regular basis to locate possible mite populations. If possible, isolate infested plants from non-infested plants. Work from the non-infested areas of the nursery prior to working in infested areas. Many spider mite species hitchhike on clothing.
Repeated spot applications in infested areas have been successful in some sites.
Several growers are working with the 'slash and burn' concept. They remove most of the above ground foliage of infested plants and burn or otherwise dispose of the foliage. They then treat the emerging foliage to kill any remaining pest mites. Although severe, this treatment may be the only practical solution for heavily infested sites, particularly where chemical application presents difficulties. The U.S.D.A. Agriculture Handbook 193 mentions the use of hot water treatment for dormant rhizomes to eliminate mites. It suggests immersing them for ten minutes in hot water at 50ºC (122ºF) then heeling into sand or sawdust and kept cool until planting time in the spring.
Many growers are interested in the use of biological control of pest mites. They are interested for a variety of reasons including
- the desire to reduce the use of pesticides,
- increase worker safety,
- increase plant quality, and, occasionally,
- to reduce pesticide application costs.
Many sites are not well situated for chemical control and may have restrictions imposed by their sites. Examples of such are
- hospitals, etc.
In these sites, biological control may be an option. By its nature, biological control generally requires low levels of the pest present in order to sustain the natural enemy population. These low levels would not be desirable for plants, which are to be sold or transported. A production nursery might use a biological control program to suppress bamboo mites below a damaging threshold, later to clean up their plants before sale with miticide applications.
There has been work to study and develop biological control programs for bamboo mites. Zhang and colleagues looked at the potential of Amblyseius cucumeris as a biocontrol agent against S. nanjingensis (Zhang et al, 2000). A. cucumeris is most readily known for its augmentative use against thrips. In their research, the number of prey consumed by predators increased with density. This numerical response is generally a good trait in predators helping to increase the suppression of pest mites as the pest population increases. A. cucumeris was not able to invade intact webs however, but was able to stay and lay eggs in broken nests, which were common. Typhlodromus bambusae Ehara is considered a specific predatory mite of the S. celarius mites in Japan, but is not present in the United States (Saito, 1990b). Pratt and Croft, as well as this author, have looked at the management of S. longus with an endemic predatory mite, Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman) that is commercially available. N. fallacis was able to feed, reproduce and develop on S. longus and significantly reduced the infestation levels of S. longus (Pratt and Croft, 1999). It readily entered nests of bamboo mite through natural openings or creating new holes.
This author has worked with Neoseiulus fallacis in a number of nurseries on a variety of different plant types. It has been successfully used to suppress
- two-spotted mites,
- citrus red mite,
- spruce spider mite, and
- bamboo mites in commercial operations.
The key to the successful use of biological control in these situations is good scouting and releasing the mite at the proper threshold. We use a very conservative threshold of one pest mite per every five leaves. These low levels of pests are not usually noticed without a rigorous scouting program. This particular predator mite requires 80% humidity easily found in the canopy of bamboo grown in the Northwest.
There are a number of other predatory mites, which might suppress bamboo mites and may deserve further investigation.
- Galendromis occidentalis, the western predatory mite, may do better in hot, arid climates.
- Phytoseiulis persimilis is often used in greenhouses and field releases for two-spotted mite. It tends to work very well at higher densities of prey than controlled by N. fallacis but is not as adapted to colder temperatures.
- N. californicus has been successful in many crops in California.
Research investigating inundative releases designed to eliminate the bamboo mite might be useful.
Another consideration with the use of predator mites, is the use of compatible pesticides if pest problems arise. There is some data on chemical available for N. fallacis and other predator mites. Suppliers of the predators may be the best source for this information for particular predators.
Suppliers of Biological Control Agents:
FOR COMMERCIAL NURSERIES
In order to reduce the movement of bamboo mites in commerce and to reduce the potential for aesthetic and economic damage, chemical treatment may be warranted.
Some factors to consider with chemical control are
- mode of action,
- potential for phytotoxicity,
- application efficiency,
- re-entry interval, and
Few miticides have been registered specifically for bamboo with the exception of Floramite. Although most miticides will be efficacious, it is incumbent on the grower to test each new pesticide on a few plants and wait 7 to 10 days to check for phytotoxicity. Miticide activity varies and it is useful to know the mode of action of a chosen pesticide to kill mites.
Some miticides kill immature and adult mites, some kill eggs and immatures only, some kill practically all stages.
- Hexagon targets eggs and immature mites only but has a very long residual and also sterilizes the female mites.
- Oxythioquinox (Joust or Morestan) have ovicidal activity but the products are no longer manufactured (growers can use up existing labeled stock until September 30, 2002).
- Floramite has some ovicidal activity but targets immature and adults mites.
When using miticides without ovicidal activity, two applications against mites 7-10 days apart are recommended. Several of the newer miticides have restrictions on the number of applications per season to reduce development of mite resistance. Rotations between products with different modes of action will help reduce selection for resistance. It is very important to read all labels completely.
Contact is one of the most important issues for applicators trying to eliminate bamboo mites. Thorough coverage of the bamboo leaves, particularly the leaf underside housing the mites, is required for good activity. This is particularly important with bamboo mite, as this mite produces thick webbing, which may reduce pesticide penetration. High pressure and electrostatic sprayers may increase coverage. Some miticides, such as Avid, have systemic activity (translaminar movement of the pesticide) and can increase mite suppression particularly where thorough coverage is difficult. The natural waxiness and near vertical growth of bamboo leaves often cause pesticides to bead up and roll off of the leaves. The addition of a surfactant can reduce this occurrence, ideally spreading the chemical evenly over the leaf for good contact. Don Emenegger of Uniroyal Chemical Company has evaluated the use of surfactants alone and with Floramite for control of bamboo spider mite. His findings show that the surfactant rate used is much more important than the particular surfactant itself (Emenegger, pers. comm.). As many surfactant labels give a range of rates, it was important to adjust the surfactant rate on any given plant variety until spray droplets spread instead of beading up on the leaf surface. Additionally, although not registered pesticides, many of the surfactants themselves had direct activity on the mites. Mite eggs, however, were not affected and the mite population eventually rebounded. Silicon-based surfactants (Silwet and Silgard) are recommended for Floramite. Latron is recommended for Kelthane. Oil may enhance Avid activity. Oil, itself, has miticidal activity upon direct contact, including the ability to smother mite eggs. There is no residual activity in oil and insecticidal soap products, however, and frequent applications may be necessary.
Selectivity of the pesticide targeting mites is also an issue. Where multiples pests are present (for example, bamboo aphid and bamboo mite) some growers choose a pesticide with broad-spectrum activity such as Talstar. More selective miticides may be indicated for sites using biological control or interested in conserving natural enemies. Floramite has been used in conjunction with predatory mite releases in Oregon with no apparent impact on the predatory mite, Neosieulus fallacis. Oils and soaps, though they can kill on contact, have no residual, leaving immigrating natural enemies unharmed. Although homemade concoctions of oil and soap applications may very well have an effect on the mites, the base products are not formulated for plant use and may cause phytotoxicity. It is also important for applicators at commercial nurseries to use pesticides legally registered by the EPA and licensed in their state.
Toxicity and re-entry levels vary tremendously. The chart provided of specific products, gives this information for several of the most commonly used miticides. Additional information on chemical control of bamboo might may be found on the web at https://entomology.oregonstate.edu/ .
Baker, E.W. and D.M. Tuttle. 1994. A guide to the spider mites (Tetranychidae) of the United States. Indira Publ. House, Michigan, 1-347.
Cooper, G. 1997. Is there a Problem with Bamboo Mites? Http://www.bamboo.org/abs/BambooMiteStory.html.
DeAngelis, J.D. and Pratt, P.D. Bamboo Spider Mite Control. Oregon State University Extension Urban Entomology Notes.Http://www.ent.orst.edu/urban/home.html
Flechtmann, C.H.W. 1995. On the mite fauna of bamboo leaves in the Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. International Journal of Acarology 21(4), December 1995: 243-252.
INBAR. The Impact of Bamboo Pests on the Economy. Insect Pests of Bamboos in Asia.
Lin, J.-Z., Zhang, Z.-Q., Zhang, Y.-X., Liu, Q.-Y., & Ji, J. 2000. Checklist of mites from moso bamboo in Fujian, China. Systematic & Applied Acarology Special Publications, 4, 81-92.
Ostoja-Starzewski, J.C. 2000. Schizotetranychus celarius (Banks)(Acari: Prostigmata) a mite pest of bamboo; first records for Britain and two hew host records. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History. 13(2), July, 2000:95-97.
Pratt, P.D. and B.A. Croft. 1999. Expanded distribution of the bamboo spider mite, Schizotetranychus longus (Acari: Phytoseiidae), and predation by Neoseiulus fallacis (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Acarologia, 40(2), April, 1999:191-197.
Saito, Y. and J. Ueno, 1979. Life history studies on Schizotetranychus celarius (Banks) and Aponychus corpuzae Rimando as compared with other tetranychid mite species (Acarina: Tetranychidae). Appl. Ent. Zool. 14: 445-452.
Saito, Y. 1990a. Two new spider mite species of the Schizotetranychus celarius complex (Acari: Tetranychidae). Appl. Ent. Zool. 25 (3): 389-396.
Saito, Y. 1990b. Life-history and feeding habit of Typhlodromus bambusa, a specific predator of Schizotetranychus celarius (Acari: Phytoseiidae: Tetranychidae). Exp. Appl. Acarol. 10: 45-51.
Young and Haun. Bamboo in the United States. USDA Agriculture Handbook #193.
Zhang, Y.-X., Zhang, Z.-Q., Lin, J.-Z., & Ji, J. 2000. Potential of Ambylseius cucumeris (Acari: Phytoseiidae) as a biocontrol agent against Schizotetranychus nanjingensis (Acari: Tetranychidae) in Fujian, China. Systematic & Applied Acarology Special Publications, 4, 109-124.
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services: Bamboo Mealybug
Applied Bio-Nomics Ltd. Biological Technical Manual. Applied Bio-Nomics, 11074 West Saanich Road, Sidney, British Columbia, Canada V8L 5P5. http://www.netidea.com/~skijobs/applied/index.html
Cherim, M. 1998. The Green Methods Manual. The Green Spot, Department of Bio-Ingenuity, 93 Priest Road, Barrington, New Hampshire 03825. 237 pp.
Flint, M.L. 1998. Pests of the Garden and Small Farm: A Grower's Guide to Using Less Pesticide, 2nd ed. # 3332. ANR Publications, University of California, 6701 San Pablo Avenue, Oakland, CA 94608-1239. http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu/InOrder/Shop/ItemDetails.asp?ItemNo=3332
Flint, M.L. and S. H. Driestadt. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook: The Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control. # 3386. ANR Publications, University of California, 6701 San Pablo Avenue, Oakland, CA 94608-1239. 154 pp. http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu/InOrder/Shop/ItemDetails.asp?ItemNo=3386H
Hunter, C.D. 1997. Suppliers of Beneficial Organisms in North America. California Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Pesticide Regulation, Environmental Monitoring and Pest Management Branch, 1020 N Street, Room 161, Sacramento, CA 95814-5604. 32 pp. http://www.cdpr.ca.gov/docs/ipminov/bensuppl.htm
Thomson, W.T. 1992. A World Wide Guide to Beneficial Animals Used for control Purposes. Thomson Publications. P.O. Box 9335, Fresno, CA 93791. http://www.agbook.com/
Antonelli, A.L., Byther, R.S., Maleike,R.R., Collman, S.J., and A.D. Davison. How to Identify Rhododendron and Azalea Problems. Washington State University Cooperative Extension. EB 1229. http://pubs.wsu.edu/
Alford, D.V. 1995. A Color Atlas of Pests of Ornamental Trees, Shrubs and Flowers. Wiley & Sons. 448 pp.
Bobbitt, V.M., A. Antonelli, C. Foss, R. Davidson, R. Byther, and R. Maleike. 1997. Pacific Northwest Landscape IPM Manual. Washington State University, Puyallup, 7612 Pioneer Way E., Puyallup, WA 98371. http://pubs.wsu.edu/
Byther, R.S. 1996. Landscape Plant Problems: A Pictorial Diagnostic Manual. Washington State University Puyallup, 7612 Pioneer Way E., Puyallup, WA 98371. 144 pp. http://pubs.wsu.edu/
Chastagner, G.A. (editor). 1997. Christmas Tree Diseases, Insects, & Disorders in the Pacific Northwest: Identification and Management. Washington State University Cooperative Extension MISC0186. pp. 154. http://pubs.wsu.edu/
Dreistadt, S. H. 1994. Pests of Landscape Trees and Shrubs: An Integrated Pest Mangement Guide. Publication #3359, ANR Publications, University of California, 6701 San Pablo Avenue, Oakland, CA 94608-1239. 327 pp. http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu/InOrder/Shop/ItemDetails.asp?ItemNo=3359
Daar et al. IPM Training Manual forLandscape Gardeners. Bio-Integral Resource Center. P.O. Box 7414, Berkeley, CA 94707. 80 pp. http://www.birc.org/
Koehler, C.S. 1987. Insect Pest Management Guidelines for California Landscape Ornamentals.Publication #3317. ANR Publications, University of California, 6701 San Pablo Avenue, Oakland, CA 94608-1239. 82 pp.
Pirone, P.P. 1978. Diseases & Pests of Ornamental Plants. 5th Edition. Wiley & Sons. 566 pp.
Greenhouse, Container and Field Grown Nursery IPM:
Powel, C.C. and R.K. Lindquist. 1992. Ball Pest and Disease Manual. Ball, West Chicago, IL. http://www.za65.dial.pipex.com/fruit/images/Ball%20Books/Ball%20Main%20Page.htm
B.I.R.C. 1990. Least-Toxic Pest Management: Greenhouses & Indoor Plants. The Bio-Integral Resource Center. P.O. Box 7414, Berkeley, CA 94707. http://www.birc.org/
Daar et al. IPM Training Manual for Wholesale Nursery Growers. Wholesale Nursery Growers of America and the Bio-Integral Resource Center. P.O. Box 7414, Berkeley, CA 94707. 80 pp. http://www.birc.org/
Dreistadt, S.H. 2001. Integrated Pest Management for Floriculture and Nurseries. Publication #3405, ANR Publications, University of California, 6701 San Pablo Avenue, Oakland, CA 94608-1239. 422 pp. http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu/InOrder/Shop/Shop.asp
Disease ID and Management:
Chase, A.R. 1997. Foliage Plant Diseases: Diagnosis and Control. APS Press. 3340 Pilot Knob Road, St. Paul, MN 55121-2097. 168 pp. http://www.shopapspress.org/
Chase, A.R., M. Daughtrey and G.W. Simone et al. 1995. Diseases of Annuals and Perennials: A Ball Guide. Identification and Control. Ball Publishing. Batavia, IL. 202 pp. http://www.za65.dial.pipex.com/fruit/images/Ball%20Books/Ball%20Main%20Page.htm
Coyier, D.L. and M.K. Roane, eds. 1986. Compendium of Rhododendron and Azalea Diseases. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. http://www.shopapspress.org/
Daughtrey, M. And A.R. Chase. 1992. Ball Field Guide To Diseases of Greenhouse Ornamentals. American Nurseryman Publishing Co., Suite 2100, 77 W. Washington St., Chicago, IL 60602-2904. 218 pp. http://www.za65.dial.pipex.com/fruit/images/Ball%20Books/Ball%20Main%20Page.htm
Daughtrey, M. L., Wick, R. L., and J.L. Peterson. 1995 Compendium of Flowering Potted Plant Diseases. APS Press. 3340 Pilot Knob Road, St. Paul, MN 55121-2097. 90 pp. http://www.shopapspress.org/
Hansen, E.M. and K.J. Lewis. 1997. Compendium of Conifer Diseases. APS Press. 3340 Pilot Knob Road, St. Paul, MN 55121-2097. 101 pp. http://www.shopapspress.org/
Horst, R.K. 1995. Compendium of Rose Diseases. APS Press. 3340 Pilot Knob Road, St. Paul, MN 55121-2097. 50 pp. http://www.shopapspress.org/
Horst, R.K. 1997. Compendium of Chrysanthemum Diseases. APS Press. 3340 Pilot Knob Road, St. Paul, MN 55121-2097. 62 pp. http://www.shopapspress.org/
Jones, R.K. and R.C. Lambe. 1982. Diseases of Woody Ornamental Plants and their Control in Nurseries. North Carolina State University, Publications Office, Dept. Of Agriculture, Communications, Raleigh, NC 27607.
Powell, C.C. and R.K. Lindquist. 1997. Ball Pest and Disease Manual. Ball Publishing, Batazia, IL. http://www.za65.dial.pipex.com/fruit/images/Ball%20Books/Ball%20Main%20Page.htm
Pscheidt et al. 2001. Pacific Northwest Disease Control Handbook. Extension Services of Oregon State University, Washington State University, and the University of Idaho. Publication Orders, Agricultural Communications, Oregon State University, Administrative Services A422, Corvallis, OR 97331-2119. http://eesc.orst.edu/agcomwebfile/EdMat/default.html
Sinclair, et al. 1987 Diseases of Trees & Shrubs. Cornell University Press. Ithaca, New York. 547 pp.
Westcott, C. 1971. The Plant Disease Handbook. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. New York. 843 pp.
Insect and Mite ID and Management:
Berry, R.E. 1991. Insects & Mites of Economic Importance in the Northwest. O.S.U. Book Stores, Inc. Corvallis, Oregon. 189 pp.
McGrath et al. 2001. Pacific Northwest Insect Control Handbook. Extension Services of Oregon State University, Washington State University, and the University of Idaho. Publication Orders, Agricultural Communications, Oregon State University, Administrative Services A422, Corvallis, OR 97331-2119. http://eesc.orst.edu/agcomwebfile/EdMat/default.html
Johnson, W.T. and Lyon, H.H. 1988. Insects that Feed on Trees & Shrubs. Cornell University Press. Ithaca, New York. 556 pp.
Lindquist, R.K. 1991. Identification of Insects and Related Pests of Horticultural Plants. Ohio Florists' Association 2130 Stella Court, Suite 200, Columbus, OH 43215-1033.
Solomon, J.D. 1995. Guide to Insect Borers of North American Broadleaf Trees and Shrubs. Agric. Handbook. 706. Washington, DC: USDA, Forest Service. 735 pp.
University of California. 1988. Borers in Landscape Trees and Shrubs. Publication #21316, ANR Publications, University of California, 6701 San Pablo Avenue, Oakland, CA 94608-1239. 4 pp. http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu/index..ihtml
University of California. 1992. Managing Insects and Mites with Spray Oils. Publication #3347, ANR Publications, University of California, 6701 San Pablo Avenue, Oakland, CA 94608-1239. 48 pp. http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu/index.ihtml
USDA. 1977. Western Forest Insects. U.S.D.A. Forest Service. Miscellaneous Publication No. 1339 (out of print).
Weed ID and Management:
University of California. 1998 Growers Weed Identification Handbook, revised ed. Publication #4030, ANR Publications, University of California, 6701 San Pablo Avenue, Oakland, CA 94608-1239. 311 pp. http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu/index..ihtml
Whitson, et al. 1991. Weeds of the West. Western Society of Weed Science and University of Wyoming. Jackson, Wyoming. 630 pp. http://eesc.orst.edu/agcomwebfile/EdMat/default.html
William, et al. 2001. Pacific Northwest Weed Control Handbook. Extension Services of OregonState University, Washington State University, and the University of Idaho. Publication Orders, Agricultural Communications, Oregon State University, Administrative Services A422, Corvallis, OR 97331-2119. http://eesc.orst.edu/agcomwebfile/EdMat/default.html
O'Connor-Marer, P.J. 1999. The Safe and Effective Use of Pesticides, 2nd ed. Publication #3324. ANR Publications, University of California, 6701 San Pablo Avenue, Oakland, CA 94608-1239. http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu/index..ihtml
Miller. 1993. Oregon Pesticide Applicator Manual: A Guide to the Safe Use and Handling of Pesticides. Oregon State University Extension Service. Extension Miscellaneuous 8532. Publication Orders, Agricultural Communications, Oregon State University, Administrative Services A422, Corvallis, OR 97331-2119. 280 pp. http://eesc.orst.edu/agcomwebfile/EdMat/default.html
Thomson, W.T. 1998. Agricultural Chemicals. Book I - Insecticides. Thomson Publications. P.O. Box 9335. Fresno, 93791. 270 pp. http://www.agbook.com/
Thomson, W.T. 1997. Agricultural Chemicals. Book II - Herbicides. Thomson Publications. P.O. Box 9335. Fresno, 93791. 302 pp. http://www.agbook.com/
Thomson, W.T. 1999. Agricultural Chemicals. Book III - Miscellaneous Agricultural Chemicals.. Thomson Publications. P.O. Box 9335. Fresno, 93791. 189 pp. http://www.agbook.com/
Thomson, W.T. 1997. Agricultural Chemicals. Book IV - Fungicides. Thomson Publications. P.O. Box 9335. Fresno, 93791. 236 pp. http://www.agbook.com/
Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources
University of California, 300 Lakeside Dr., 6th Floor
Oakland, CA 94612-3560
Published bimonthly with articles on pest management research and general agricultural issues. Subscription free upon request.
Common Sense Pest Quarterly and The IPM Practitioner
Bio-integral Resource Center (BIRC)
P.O. Box 7414 Berkeley, CA 94707
BIRC publishes both of these, with Common Sense Pest Quarterly being oriented more toward growers and IPM Practitioner towards pest management professionals. Members of BIRC also have access to a pest identification service.
Individual membership in BIRC can range from a subscription to Common Sense Pest Quarterly; with The IPM Practitioner; or membership with both publications.
Biological Control News (formerly Midwest Biological News)
Dr. Susan E. Rice Mahr, Ed.
Department of Entomology, University of Wisconsin
Madison WI 53706
(608) 262-9914 or 262-9959
FAX (608) 262-3322
Published monthly with an emphasis on use of biological controls for insect and mite pests on farms and in gardens and homes. Yearly subscriptions are available.
Oregon's Agricultural Progress
Extension and Experiment Station Communications,
422 Kerr Administration Blding
Oregon State University
Corvallis, OR 97331-2119
Published quarterly with articles on pest management research and general agricultural issues. Subscription free upon request.
Biological Control Virtual Information Center: http://ipmwww.ncsu.edu/biocontrol/biocontrol.html
Biological Control: A Guide to Natural Enemies in North America: http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ent/biocontrol/
Biological Control for the Public: http://everest.ento.vt.edu/~kok/Text_frame1.htm
Midwest Institute for Biological Control: http://www.inhs.uiuc.edu/cee/biocontrol/home.html
Integrated Plant Protection Center: http://www.ippc.orst.edu/
OSU Entomology Department: http://www.ent.orst.edu/entomology/
University of California IPM Online: http://axp.ipm.ucdavis.edu/default.html
The Biology and Management of Silverleaf Whitefly: http://www.biocontrol.ucr.edu/bemisia.html
Western Flower Thrips in Greenhouses: http://www.biocontrol.ucr.edu/WFT.html
Insect Parasitic Nematodes: http://www2.oardc.ohio-state.edu/nematodes/
Koppert Biological Systems site: http://www.koppert.nl/e005.shtml
Compatibility of Neoseiulus fallacis: http://www.ent.orst.edu/prattp/pesticides.html
Field scouting: http://www.agric.gov.ab.ca/pests/60510600.html
Scouting and Monitoring for Pests in the Commercial Greenhouse: http://agweb.okstate.edu/pearl/hort/greenhouses/f-6711.pdf
Spider mite biocontrol:
Suppliers: (limited list as an example)
Association of Natural Bio-control Producers: http://www.anbp.org/
Novartis BCM: http://www.anbp.org/b-novartis.htm
Portions of this website have been previously reproduced in the vol. 22-5, 2001 issue of Bamboo, the Magazine of The American Bamboo Society. The author would like to thank the the members of the ABS for allowing use of the previously published materials.
I would also like to thank Thirza Collins and Neil Bell for all of their hard work developing information and research and bamboo mite.